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NAHA Style Guide


Subheadings: Authors are encouraged to create subheadings within articles or chapters.

Names of persons: Include full name and dates of birth and death at the first mention of individuals significant to the history under consideration: Agnes Mathilde Wergeland (1857­1914).

Norwegian geographic names: The spelling of Norwegian place-names should follow current forms, for instance, Trondheim not Trondhjem, Vågå not Vaage, Sunnmøre not Søndmøre. When referring to the capital of Norway use Oslo in every case. Authors who wish to do so may refer to earlier nomenclature in parentheses. In this case use the spelling Christiania for the period 1624-1875 and Kristiania for the period 1875-1925. Example: "This young woman emigrated from Vollen i Asker, a village not far from Oslo (Kristiania), in 1914." For the major administrative divisions of Norway, authors may adopt one of two methods. Whichever method chosen should be used consistently. (A) Authors may use the designation amt for the period prior to 1919 and fylke for the following years. In this case, an author should write "Stavanger amt" rather than "Rogaland fylke." Where the older designation is used, it should be followed by the modern equivalent in parentheses. Example: "Many of the earliest Norwegian emigrants came from Stavanger amt (Rogaland fylke)." (B) Authors may also use contemporary designations consistently. If reference is made to the period before 1919 when using this method, the first reference to a contemporary fylke should be followed by the older designation in parentheses. Example: "Many of the earliest emigrants from Norway to the United States came from Rogaland fylke (Stavanger amt)."

Norwegian word and phrases: Authors are given considerable discretion in using modern or earlier forms, depending on context, source, and desired effect, for instance, husmann or husmand, øvrighet or øvrighed. Nineteenth-century forms of nouns are, however, not capitalized, but are made to conform to present usage. This practice creates the least confusion and is consistent with endnote style when citing works in Norwegian. With the exceptions noted in these guidelines, Norwegian forms are italicized. When a Norwegian form is introduced into the text, an English translation is given within square brackets: husmann [cotter]. If the Norwegian form is used for the purpose of explanation or effect, it may be added within square brackets after the English term: secular authority [verdslig øvrighed], people of status [de kondisjonerte]. English plural endings (-s, -es) are never added to Norwegian nouns; use instead the Norwegian plural forms: bonde [farmer], bønder [farmers], lag [unchanged in the plural, either society or societies].

Norwegian names of organizations, ships, newspapers, magazines, and literary works: The names of organizations and institutions are not italicized and should on first mention be followed by an English translation in square brackets, for example, Det Norske Selskap [The Norwegian Society] or Sønner av Norge [Sons of Norway]. The English form may often substitute for the Norwegian name. The names of ships are in italics: Restaurationen, Lusitania. The names of Norwegian-language newspapers and magazines are italicized, capitalized, and should on first mention be followed by an English translation in square brackets: Minneapolis Tidende [Minneapolis Times], Ved Arnen [By the Fireside]. The titles of poems, plays, stories, and books are in italics, but in Norwegian only proper names are capitalized: En glad gut [A Happy Boy] Leilighets digte [Occasional Poems], Et dødens døgn, sørgespill [A Day of Death, a Tragedy], but Familien paa Gilje [The Family at Gilje]. An English translation is given the first time the title is used. When the title is repeated, either the Norwegian or the English form may be used.

Biblical references: The preferred form for biblical citations is as follows:
     Gen. 25:19             1 Thess. 4:11
     Heb. 13:8,12           1 Sam. 10
     Ruth 3:1-18            Exod. 8:25-9:4
Standard abbreviations for all the books of the Bible are found in The Chicago Manual, section 14.34.

Numbers: Cardinal numbers one through ninety-nine are spelled out. Cardinal numbers 100 and above are written in arabic numerals. Ordinal numbers follow the same pattern, spelled out through ninety-ninth; 100th and beyond carrying appropriate ordinal abbreviations (101st, 102nd, 103rd, 104th, etc.). References to centuries are always spelled out, for example, "sixteenth century." When used in an adjectival phrase an ordinal number is followed by a hyphen, for example, "nineteenth-century Norwegian literature."

Dates: Treatment of numbers and dates should generally follow The Chicago Manual, sections 8.3-8.40. Specific dates should always be written in the order of day-month-year: 11 November 1918. Exceptions may be made for the "Seventeenth of May" and the "Fourth of July."

Currency: Do not provide contemporary American equivalents or newer Norwegian equivalents for references in text or notes to Norwegian currency: speciedaler, ort, skilling, krone, øre, etc. Explanations of value are most useful when given in functional terms. Example: "A Norwegian speciedaler was at that time roughly equivalent to a day’s wage for a farm laborer."

Page numbers: Page numbers in citations should not be preceded by the abbreviations "p." or "pp." nor should they be followed by "f." or "ff." If reference to page numbers is necessary within sentences in text or notes use "page" or "pages." NAHA style requires complete enumeration for pagination in text or citations: 274 or 32-38. In notes use the abbreviation "n.p." if no pagination is available. Pagination in citations is further discussed below.

"Norwegian American" and "Norwegian-American": The phrase "Norwegian American" does not require a hyphen when "Norwegian" is used as an adjective to modify the noun "American." When forming the compound adjective, "Norwegian-American," a hyphen is necessary. Note the following example: "Norwegian Americans have devoted considerable scholarly attention to Norwegian-American history."

States: In text the names of states are spelled out: "Iowa." In notes, use the abbreviations of the U. S. Postal Service, in this case: IA.


As mentioned above, the Norwegian-American Historical Association does not use footnotes. Endnotes appear at the ends of both articles and book-length manuscripts. Wherever possible, a note number should come at the end of a sentence. Note numbers should always follow quoted or cited material; they should not be placed after authors’ names or other references preceding the quoted or cited material. Any reference to previous forms of an article, such as an address delivered at a scholarly meeting, a doctoral dissertation, or acknowledgments of any assistance (for instance, grants from foundations, including the year or years of the grant), should be detailed in an article’s first note, the note number appearing at the end of the article’s first sentence.

NAHA style does not permit "Ibid.," "Loc cit.," "Op. cit.," or "passim" in references. Any citations of a work subsequent to the first give a shortened reference to author(s), title, and pagination if necessary.


Examples show the form for a first citation followed by the form for any subsequent citations.


Floyd M. Martinson, Growing Up in Norway, 800 to 1990 (Carbondale, IL, 1992), 63-64.

Martinson, Growing Up in Norway, 63.

Journal article

Russell A. Kazal, "Revisiting Assimilation," American Historical Review 100 (1995), 437-471.

Kazal, "Revisiting Assimilation,"450.

Article in a collection of articles by one author

Philip Gleason, "Identifying Identity: A Semantic History," in Speaking of Diversity: Language and Ethnicity in Twentieth-Century America (Baltimore, 1992), 129.

Gleason, "Identifying Identity," 141.

Article in collection with editor and various authors

William Boelhower, "Ethnic Trilogies: A Genealogical and Generational Poetics," in The Invention of Ethnicity, ed. Werner Sollors (New York, 1989), 169-173.

Boelhower, "Ethnic Trilogies," 170.

Article in previously cited collection

Judith Stein, "Defining the Race, 1890-1930," in Sollors, The Invention of Ethnicity, 81.

Stein, "Defining the Race," 88-90.

Book review

Timothy Bawden, review of The Atlas of Ethnic Diversity in Wisconsin, by Kazimierz J. Zaniewski and Carol J. Rosen, Journal of American Ethnic History 20 (2000), 117-118.

Bawden, review of The Atlas of Ethnic Diversity in Wisconsin, 119.

Internet citation

"The Promise of America: Norwegian Emigration to America and Norwegian-American History, 1825-2000" [cited 29 April 2001]. Online:

"The Promise of America."

NOTE: A large website is identified by reference to its first page.

Ingrid Semmingsen, "Women in the History of Norwegian Emigration," n.p. [cited 9 April 2001]. Online:"URN:NBN:no-nb_emidata_1192"

Semmingsen, "Women," n.p.

NOTE: Citation of a text on the internet requires a complete internet address. The notation "n.p." following the title refers to lack of pagination; if page numbers are available, insert arabic numerals in this position. The date refers to the date the text was viewed on the internet.


H. A. Preus, "Svar fra Pastor H. A. Preus," Morgenbladet, 16 March 1867.

Preus, "Svar fra Pastor H. A. Preus."

Popular magazine

Øyvind T. Gulliksen, "Den norsk-amerikanske kirkegård," The Norseman, September 1999, 61.

Gulliksen, "Den norsk-amerikanske kirkegård," 63.


Edited book

Rudolph J. Vecoli and Suzanne M. Sinke, eds., A Century of European Migrations, 1830-1930 (Urbana, IL, 1991).

Vecoli and Sinke, A Century of European Migrations.

Translated book

Einar Molland, Church Life in Norway 1800-1950, trans. Harris Kaasa (Minneapolis, 1957), 28­29.

Molland, Church Life in Norway, 67.


Kendric Charles Babcock, The Scandinavian Element in the United States (1914; reprint, New York, 1969), 155-156.

Babcock, The Scandinavian Element, 155.

Revised or later edition

Kristofer Visted and Hilmar Stigum, Vår gamle bondekultur, 2 vols., rev. ed. (Oslo, 1951), 2:235-326.

Visted and Stigum, Vår gamle bondekultur, 2:137.

NOTE: "3rd ed.," "5th ed.," etc., would be substituted for "rev. ed." in the case of a book having undergone more than one revised edition.

Book or multivolume work by several authors or editors

Michael Metcalf, "Settlements: Scandinavia," in Handbook of European History, 1400-1600: Late Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Reformation, ed. Thomas A. Brady Jr., Heiko A. Oberman, and James D. Tracy, 2 vols. (Grand Rapids, MI, 1994-1995), 2:523-550.

Metcalf, "Settlements: Scandinavia," 546.

Ingrid Semmingsen et al., eds., Norges kulturhistorie, 8 vols. (Oslo, 1979-1981), 5:53-74.

Semmingsen et al., Norges kulturhistorie, 4:152.

NOTE: For up to three authors or editors, all should be named. If there are more than three, use "et al."

Multivolume work with single author and title

B. J. Hovde, The Scandinavian Countries, 1720-1865: The Rise of the Middle Classes, 2 vols. (Boston, 1943), 1:91-93.

Hovde, The Scandinavian Countries, 1:301.

Multivolume work with varying authors and single title

Andreas Aarflot, Norsk kirkehistorie, vol. 2 (Oslo, 1967), 20-21.

Aarflot, Norsk kirkehistorie, 99.

Multivolume work with different volume titles and authors

Anne-Lise Seip, Nasjonen bygges, 1830-1870, vol. 8 of Aschehougs Norges Historie (Oslo, 1997), 38-49.

Seip, Nasjonen bygges, 60.

Work in series

Orm Øverland, Immigrant Minds, American Identities: Making the United States Home, 1870­1930, Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Centennial Series (Urbana, IL, 2000), 63-64.

Øverland, Immigrant Minds, 76.

Encyclopedia article

Jan Christensen, "Norway," Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th ed., 13:264.

Christensen, "Norway," 265-266.

Review essay

James D. Bratt, "City, Soul, and the New Immigration," review of Gods of the City: Religion and the American Urban Landscape, ed. Robert A. Orsi, and Gatherings in Diaspora: Religious Communities and the New Immigration, ed. R. Stephen Warner and Judith G. Wittner, Journal of American Ethnic History 20 (2001), 112.

Bratt, "City, Soul, and the New Immigration," 113.

Letter in published collection

Jon N. Bjørndalen to his parents, 5 January 1844, in Land of Their Choice: The Immigrants Write Home, ed. Theodore C. Blegen (Minneapolis, 1955), 183-188.

Jon N. Bjørndalen to his parents, 5 January 1844, 185.

Ecclesiastical convention or meeting

"Menighedsskolesagen," in Beretning...Synoden for den norsk-ev.-luth. kirke i Amerika...Saint Paul, Minn....1911, 67-86.

"Menighedsskolesagen," 70.

NOTE: The often lengthy titles of church proceedings invite judicious abbreviation. These references need not include place of publication or publisher, but should include a word or key phrase from the title, the name of the relevant organization, the place of meeting, and the full date or year of the convention or meeting.


"There Many Shall Come from the East and the West," #239, The Lutheran Hymnary (Minneapolis, 1913).

"There Many Shall Come from the East and the West," stanza 3.

NOTE: Wherever possible, references to hymns use the number of the hymn rather than page number.

Unpublished paper

Rochelle Wright, "From Farm to Factory: Walter Dickson’s Urban Immigrants" (paper delivered at the seventieth annual meeting of the Society for the Advancement of Scandinavian Study, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2 May 1980), 5-8.

Wright, "From Farm to Factory," 10.

Unpublished dissertation or thesis

Duane Rodell Lindberg, "Men of the Cloth and the Social-Cultural Fabric of the Norwegian Ethnic Community in North Dakota" (Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota, 1975), 30-31.

Lindberg, "Men of the Cloth," 35.

Sources in archival collections

NOTE: It is not possible to create a standard form of reference adequate to the variety of materials located in archival repositories and to the different schemes used to organize and locate such materials. The reference should take into account the notation typical of the repository and make it as easy as possible for the next researcher to locate the same material. Always include a descriptive title, whatever notation is available, the name of the archival repository, and the location of the repository. Some examples follow.

Theodore C. Blegen to Olaf Morgan Norlie, 4 March 1938, in Olaf Morgan Norlie Papers, P561, Box 3, File: "Beaver Creek, Illinois, Annotated Bibliography," Archives of the Norwegian­American Historical Association, Saint Olaf College, Northfield, MN.

Theodore C. Blegen to Olaf Morgan Norlie, 4 March 1938.

Unpublished and untitled autobiography of Johan Arndt Aasgaard in Johan Arndt Aasgaard biographical file, Archives of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Luther Seminary, Saint Paul, MN, 8.

Aasgaard, Autobiography, 8.

Diaries of Daniel Thrap, 29 November 1880, 28-32 in 4Ao7711 Ms 8vo, 28-32, in Riksarkiv, Oslo.

Diaries of Daniel Thrap, 29 November 1880, 29.

Sanborn Insurance Maps of Minneapolis, Minnesota (New York: Sanborn Map Company, 1912), plate 285, Cartographical Collection, Minnesota Historical Society, Saint Paul, MN.

Sanborn Insurance Maps of Minneapolis, plate 284.

Sources in possession of private individuals

Diary of Søren Sørensen Urberg, 4-8, in possession of Øyvind Gulliksen.

Diary of Søren Sørensen Urberg, 6.

NOTE: When referring to items in the possession of individuals use a proper name rather than, for example, "of the author."


Studies and Records

George T. Flom, "Norwegian Language and Literature in American Universities," Studies and Records 2 (Northfield, MN, 1927), 78-103.

Flom, "Norwegian Language and Literature," 99.

NOTE: From 1925-1959 (volumes 1-20) this series appeared under the title Studies and Records. Citations for this period use this title.

Norwegian-American Studies

Kenneth O. Bjork, "A Covenant Folk, with Scandinavian Colorings," Norwegian-American Studies 21 (Northfield, MN, 1962), 212-251. Bjork, "A Covenant Folk," 219.

NOTE: Beginning in 1962 (volumes 21 forward) this series appeared as Norwegian-American Studies. This title is used in citations for this period.


Lloyd Hustvedt, Rasmus Bjørn Anderson: Pioneer Scholar (Northfield, MN, 1966), 51. Hustvedt, Rasmus Bjørn Anderson, 247.

NOTE: Although this is volume 2 in the Authors Series, citations of books do not include reference to the several series published by the Association: Authors, Biographical, Topical, Travel and Description.

Translated book

Johan Reinert Reiersen, Pathfinder for Norwegian Emigrants, trans. Frank G. Nelson (Northfield, MN, 1981) 98.

Reiersen, Pathfinder for Norwegian Emigrants, 151.

Edited and translated book

Gro Svendsen, Frontier Mother: The Letters of Gro Svendsen, ed. and trans. Pauline Farseth and Theodore C. Blegen (Northfield, MN, 1950), 15.

Svendsen, Frontier Mother, 33.

Article in collection with editor and various authors

Carol Colburn, "‘Well, I Wondered When I Saw You, What All These New Clothes Meant,’" in Material Culture and People’s Art among the Norwegians in America, ed. Marion John Nelson (Northfield, MN, 1994), 142.

Colburn, "‘Well, I Wondered When I Saw You,’" 147-149.

Article in a collection of articles by one author

Laurence M. Larson, "The Norwegian Element in the Field of American Scholarship," in The Changing West and Other Essays (Northfield, MN, 1937), 17-18.

Larson, "The Norwegian Element," 22.

Translated sources in volumes with editorial titles

Jacob Neumann, Bishop Jacob Neumann’s Word of Admonition to the Peasants, ed. and trans. Gunnar J. Malmin, in Studies and Records 1 (Northfield, MN, 1925), 95-109.

Neumann, Bishop Jacob Neumann’s Word, 97.

J. W. C. Dietrichson, The Travel Narrative, in A Pioneer Churchman: J. W. C. Dietrichson in Wisconsin, 1844-1850, ed. E. Clifford Nelson, trans. Malcolm Rosholt and Harris E. Kaasa (New York, 1973), 103.

Dietrichson, The Travel Narrative, 91.

Svein Nilsson, "Jefferson Prairie," in A Chronicler of Immigrant Life: Svein Nilsson’s Articles in Billed-Magazin, 1868-1870, trans. Clarence A. Clausen (Northfield, MN, 1982), 49-66.

Nilsson, "Jefferson Prairie," 63.

Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson to Karoline Bjørnson, 25 October 1880, in Land of the Free: Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson’s America Letters, 1880-1881, ed. and trans. Eva Lund Haugen and Einar Haugen (Northfield, MN, 1978), 82-83.

Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson to Karoline Bjørnson, 25 October 1880, 82.

Preface or introduction

Odd S. Lovoll, preface to Bernt Julius Muus: Founder of Saint Olaf College, by Joseph M. Shaw (Northfield, MN, 1999), vii-ix.

Lovoll, preface to Bernt Julius Muus, vii.


Carlton C. Qualey, Norwegian Settlement in the United States (Northfield, MN, 1938; reprint, New York, 1970), 196.

Qualey, Norwegian Settlement, 97-129.

NOTE: In the case of publications of the Norwegian-American Historical Association, a full citation to the original edition precedes information on the reprinted edition. Compare this with discussion of other reprinted editions on page 8 above.

Two books by Theodore C. Blegen

Theodore C. Blegen, Norwegian Migration to America, 1825-1860 (Northfield, MN, 1931), 81.

Blegen, Norwegian Migration to America, 1825-1860, 219.

Theodore C. Blegen, Norwegian Migration to America: The American Transition (Northfield, MN, 1940), 241.

Blegen, Norwegian Migration to America: The American Transition, 171.

NOTE: Although they are complementary and share a main title, these two books by Blegen are treated as separate works and not as volumes 1 and 2 of a single work.


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