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Norwegian-American Bygdelags and their Publications
By Jacob Hodnefield
(Volume 18: Page 163)

Norwegian-American bygdelags are phenomena of the twentieth century. A bygdelag, in Norwegian speech, is a society whose members are of one community. According to A. A. Veblen, "An American bygdelag is a society composed of natives of some particular settlement or group of settlements in Norway and of their descendants in this country." {1} Theodore C. Blegen defines bygdelags as "societies made up of immigrants, and the descendants of immigrants, who originated in particular districts in the old country." Again, "The membership was made up of immigrants from given districts and their descendants; the bonds of union were dialect, common customs, songs and music, acquaintanceship, and shared traditions." {2}

The meetings of the lags, consequently, partook of the nature of family reunions, although on a larger scale, and they are not dissimilar to reunions in larger cities of residents from some particular rural community. However, in the case of the lags there are stronger ties than those of place. There are bonds of language and dialect, education, religious training, common scenery, a common emigration experience, common pioneering, common homesickness. In the annual conventions of such societies, "visiting," or social conversation, is of first importance. The social aspect is characteristic of all lags. Despite other qualities that characterize some of these organizations, visiting retains first place, and visiting cannot be ignored by any of them. [164]

"The bygdelags have come into being from sentimental considerations, and their object is primarily social, to foster friendship and acquaintance of former neighbors, and to cultivate the traditions and keep alive the memories of the ancestral home localities." They have other aims, "collecting, preserving, and publishing historical and biographical information regarding immigrants to America who came from the districts that the lag represents." {3}

That dialects are important in bygdelag meetings will be understood when it is realized that there are scores of local dialects spoken along the Norwegian coast and that the people of the south have difficulty in understanding the people of the north. Thus a short story or narrative may be a fortælling in one area, a skrøna in another, a slaasa, rispa, or glosa, depending upon where you are. What is "ours" may be vor, konses, or aukan. It can readily be seen that it is important that fellow members of lags talk the same language.

The bygdelags here considered are generally national in organization and appeal. There are sub-lags, representing smaller districts in Norway; these frequently are subdivisions of the national societies. Some of them carry the names of their own districts, and it is hard to distinguish them from the larger national organizations. The lags are confined mainly to the northwestern part of the United States, in spite of being organized as national societies. Few have reached farther east than Chicago. There are Pacific coast divisions of some of the larger lags, and there are local groups in such cities as Chicago and Minneapolis-St. Paul. Thus it is evident that there cannot be a complete list nor a complete explanation of all the organizations that have carried the bygdelag designation.

The word bygdelag is made up of two parts: lag, as used in the compound noun, means society or association; bygd means district, parish, community, settlement. Bygge means to build. Hence, a bygd is a place that is built up, inhabited. [165] The word is often applied to a small community. Along the mountainous coast of Norway the traveler comes upon fords and inlets where there are buildings and habitations. It was natural to call such a place a bygd. Many of the names of the societies have an et ending, as Sognalaget. The et is the definite article, corresponding to the English "the." Sognalaget means "The Sogna Lag," the name of the home district being Sogn.

The objectives of the bygdelags are stated in many different ways by individuals and by the societies themselves. The following quotations are translated from the originals: "Immigrants from Norway who during their youth shared a common acquaintance with families and places find at the conventions a ready opportunity to meet neighbors again, refresh half-forgotten memories, and be cheered by the home like coziness that association with friends of one's youth usually gives. This pre-eminently is the attracting and assembling force connected with gatherings of those from the same home community." {4}

Dr. G. M. Bruce lists the common resolves of all the bygdelags as follows: "Foster, strengthen, and maintain fellow feeling and co-operation among Norwegian Americans, the native-born as well as those who emigrated, preserve and enrich our inherited culture values, such as language, history, literature, and art; promote a knowledge of and interest in the history of our people and their contribution to this country, both on the part of those who are here in the western world and those of our kin across the water; collect and preserve for the future mementos and memorials from pioneer days, books and newspapers; preserve, broaden, and strengthen the contact and fellow feeling with the land and people of our forebears." {5} [166]

L. M. Gimmestad states the objectives in these words:

"To attempt to preserve that which is valuable in our racial heritage, especially to strengthen and preserve the virtues that have distinguished our people to their credit. The deep religious seriousness which characterized our fore fathers a thousand years ago; the sense of what was decent and honorable, what was right and truth, of freedom under the law, of love of home, which always have been associated with our people; the moral purity, respect for women, hospitality and refinement, which always has been its ornament; courage, bravery, enterprise, and tough perseverance, which in all times have been manifest in its life, are all national characteristics and outstanding virtues, which not only will the Norwegians in America do well to preserve, but also are suitable for adoption as among the things that constitute any nation's real strength." {6}

The same author states that the bygdelag movement furthers a knowledge of Norway and its history, and of pioneering history in this country. He says also:

"[It] presupposes great hospitality and almost limitless willingness to perform labor gratis. It offers coziness of association, opens the springs of charity, widens the spiritual horizon, strengthens sympathy among Norwegians on both sides of the Atlantic, promotes the use of the Norwegian language in this country both in writing and in speech, in creases knowledge of the character and achievements of the Norwegian race, makes possible an extended and fruitful effort for the preservation of the cultural elements that constitute our racial heritage, and nourishes and strengthens our joy in our Norwegian origin." {7}

The individual lags often set forth their objectives in their constitutions or published them separately. Thus Hallinglaget, "The purpose of the lag shall be, so far as possible, to [167] gather all of those from Halling into a society, to write and preserve the stories of these people, and to form a bond between those of Halling here and in Norway." {8}

Landingslaget offers this, "To gather the people who emigrated from the country districts and their descendants in an annual convention, there to meet relatives and friends, to form new acquaintances, and to work for the preservation of the Norwegian language and the old traditions, and, so far as possible, to help needy people in the country districts in Norway." {9}

Modum-Eiker Laget states its purpose in these words, "To preserve and maintain the connection with the land of our ancestors and to support every undertaking which will honor our race and things Norwegian in this country." {10}

Nordhordlandslaget lists the following objectives in its constitution: "(a) To work for all that is noble and good, which, founded on Christian principles, has unfolded itself in the life of the Norwegian people, and which is more specifically stated in the following; (b) to preserve in fond memory among us and our posterity the conception of ‘Old Norway, northernmost among nations and our own native land'; (c) to attempt to preserve our acquaintance among the people of our district and their history; (d) to establish acquaintance and friendship among those from our own district and other countrymen from Nordhordland; (e) to maintain and promote interests that may be of use and of credit to those from Nordhordland here and across the sea; (f) to gather material for a historical account of the birth place, life, and work of those who have emigrated from Nordhordland to America; (g) to co-operate with similar societies in affairs of common interest to all Norwegians." {11}

Opdalslaget has an ambitious program. "The objective of [168] this association was especially to gather and publish biographies and histories of the first immigrants from Opdal who came to the United States." Sognalaget presents this statement, "Sognalaget was organized principally because of the interest of the people of its district in things Norwegian here in America, and to maintain the bonds between Sogn and its emigrated sons and daughters." {12}

The Vinger, Eidskog, og Odalen Bygdelag submits its objectives as follows, "To preserve all that is good and noble, which we brought with us to this beloved land of our adoption; to preserve and to encourage the young people to preserve our very dear mother tongue; to do our part so that the bridge which connects us to our dear home district, to our people, and to the land of our fathers may not be razed, but that it may be built stronger each passing year for the mutual joy and comfort of us all, here as well as for those in our old home."

Immigrants generally left Norway in their youth, as boys and girls or as young married people. Their memories of Norway were recollections of childhood, home, parents, brothers and sisters, church, school, play. Few had taken much part in the work and hardships of mature life. After emigrating they naturally idealized Norway; deep sympathy and love filled their thoughts of home, and of parents, region, religion, and people. Homesickness had etched the memories deep into their hearts. Correspondence had added luster, where memories had faded. Through bygdelag meetings they were able to renew home ties. These gatherings gave immigrants the opportunity to get together and experience again the nostalgic pain which they had felt when they came to these shores, and which went with them as they spread out upon the prairies of the Middle West and elsewhere. And that renewal and that sharing of memories were worth while and desirable. [169]

Although there had been group gatherings before 1900, there had been no formal organization of district societies. The first of the Norwegian-American bygdelags was the Valdris Samband, a union of those whose home district was Valdris, Norway. It was a pathfinder and a model for the later lags. It arose more or less spontaneously in Norwegian-American soil, the outcome of forces that had been operative for a long time.

In the papers of Andrew A. Veblen in the Minnesota Historical Society is a manuscript labeled "Bygdelag Origin," which gives an account of the beginning of the bygdelags and of the Valdris Samband in particular. Other sources of information will be found in the supplementary bibliography at the end of this compilation. Veblen credits the origin of the bygdelag movement to one Thomas Lajord. A letter from Lajord in the February 2, 1899 issue of Nordvesten (St. Paul) suggested a get-together of immigrants from Valdris. A second letter appeared in the same paper February 28, 1899, signed "Otter Tail Valdris," favoring the idea of a meeting. Following these suggestions, a Valdris convention was held in Minnehaha Park, Minneapolis, June 25, 1899. About 800 persons gathered at this meeting. A committee consisting of I. T. Ellingboe, Thomas Lajord, and Christian Brandt was instructed to arrange a second meeting, which was held at the same place, September 9, 1900. The third meeting took place September 8, 1901, in Como Park, St. Paul. Dr. J. S. Johnson acted as chairman. At this meeting it was decided to organize a Valdris society. An organization committee was appointed, consisting of Thomas Lajord, Helge Boe, Harald Thorson, J. S. Johnson, A. A. Veblen, G. K. Norsving, and Haldor Boen. The name "Valdris Samband" (Vaidris Union) was agreed upon. Professor Veblen was elected president, Dr. J. S. Johnson, secretary. The fourth meeting, at which a constitution was adopted, was also held in Como Park, August 31, 1900. The society dates its [170] beginning from this meeting. About 280 members were present. Officers elected were A. A. Veblen, president; Thomas Lajord, vice-president; J. S. Johnson, secretary-treasurer. It was decided to hold annual meetings. Thus a bygdelag was on its way.

The Valdris Samband quickened the interest of other immigrant groups, and similar societies sprang up rapidly in various parts of the Northwest, notably during 1907-18 and again in 1925 and the years immediately following. Customarily, in the organization of such societies, someone would write to a Norwegian newspaper, such as Skandinaven or Decorah-posten, suggesting a get-together of immigrants from a certain district in Norway. More correspondence would follow, after which a preliminary meeting would be announced in the newspapers. When this took place, the procedure would be election of temporary officers, appointment of a committee on organization, and the making of plans for further meetings. Later a constitutional committee and arrangements for a permanent organization would be taken care of. The adoption of the constitution would see the society in full swing.

According to several authors, the bygdelag movement was stimulated by the centenary of the Norwegian constitution in 1914, at which time large groups of Norwegian Americans visited Norway. Members of certain lags went in bodies. Several societies made gifts to home districts.

Another stimulant was the Norse-American Centennial in 1925 in St. Paul, celebrating the centenary of the first group immigration of Norwegians to America. President Coolidge spoke on this occasion and an estimated 200,000 attended. This celebration was largely managed and financed by the bygdelags and their general council, the Bygdelagenes Fællesraad. The cost was about $200,000.

Similar societies were organized in Canada from 1925 on ward. A gathering of Norwegians took place at Outlook [171] College, Saskatchewan, in 1925. Some bygdelags existed be fore that time. A common council was organized in Saskatoon in 1928. Thirteen lags were members of this council in 1930: Nordfjordlaget, Gudbrandsdalslaget, Telemarklaget, Trønderlaget, Hallinglaget, Oslolaget, Nordlandslaget, Stavangerlaget, Vestfoldlaget, Mørelaget, Vestmannalaget, Valdreslaget, and Østerdalsiaget. Combined meetings of lags were held in Camrose, Alberta, in 1926; Watrous, 1927; Winnipeg and Saskatoon, 1928; Swift Current, 1929; Moose Jaw, 1931. The objectives of Canadian lags include the preservation of Norwegian literature, history, music, and art. These lags have emphasized the contributions to Canada made by the Norwegian immigrants. {13}

According to Dr. G. M. Bruce, there were fifty lags in all in 1938. Some societies had already expired at that time. L. M. Gimmestad estimates the number of lags in 1929 as fifty, and the attendance in the various conventions as from 200 to 2,000; and that each year some 75,000 Norwegian Americans come under the direct influence of these societies {14}

What occupied the members of the lags at their conventions? An answer to this question was sought in 1929 by John Hjellum of Skandinaven, when he made a tour of the Northwest and attended the meetings of many societies, perhaps thirty-five or forty. He reported the average length of conventions as two and a half days, and the total attendance for the year as 50,000. Minnesota came first with sixteen conventions; North Dakota had nine; South Dakota, six; Wisconsin, four; Iowa, one. The yearly cost of conventions was $25,000.

The programs of the lag conventions reflect the culture of the home districts in Norway. If the home district was deeply religious, the programs of the corresponding lag will be of [172] a religious character. If plays, music, or folk dances were of great interest in the Norwegian community, the lag program in America will show that. As is well known, a pietistic movement covered many coast districts of western Norway in the nineteenth century. Hence, Stavanger Amt Laget has had religious programs and often church services from the time of its first meeting; and it has had two Lutheran ministers as presidents. Hallinglaget had a demonstration of the hailing dance on its program. It is likely that greater variety has characterized the programs as time passed, and that music, plays, and films of Norway have had a larger place on the programs. The American custom of speechmaking has been universally adopted. During the early years the Norwegian language was used entirely. Gradually English has come more and more into the programs. At mid-century the pro grams are shifting to English.

In view of the make-up of the bygdelags and of their objectives, publication activities would naturally be incidental. Visiting, renewing acquaintances, reminiscing are foremost. Some societies have issued no publications; some have issued a few unimportant ones; some have had ambitious publication plans but have had to drop them. A few have undertaken programs of issuing yearbooks and other publications in which they have recorded their immigration history, pictured the homeland, told of their pioneering, related adventures, issued biographies and genealogies of immigrants, written the history of pioneer communities, re ported church history, and otherwise set down their story as an immigrant group and emphasized their contributions to American life. Such publications were the responsibility of members who were aware of their value, frequently men of education, clergymen and editors.

That more of the lags did not issue important publications, or did not continue their publications for any length of time, may be due to a lack of talent as well as to a lack of interest [173] and funds. The publications were naturally intended to keep the members interested and thus to secure the future prosperity of the lag. But the editors also felt an urgency to record their history before the facts were lost. There was an urgency, furthermore, to give this story its place in American history and to bring its importance to their own members, to other Norwegian groups, and to the American people in general. It was a program too large for the lags; it was the dream of a few and beyond the capacity of most.

American history until the end of the nineteenth century was largely the story of the conquest of the American continent by the white man. Various European elements had preceded the Norwegian by many years, but the history of Norwegian immigration is a part of the larger story and an integral part of American immigration history. Many of those who have come from Europe are still conscious of their European background. They are still, to a considerable ex tent, separate stocks, separate groups, separate races.

Social intermingling was not new in pioneer settlements at the end of the nineteenth century. Immigrants from Nor way gravitated to settlements where their relatives were living. There grew up in this country Hardanger settlements, Halling settlements, Trønder settlements, and so on. Relatives and friends in these communities visited as much as work and Sundays permitted. But work and distance, tired horses, and poor roads restricted visiting to those within easy reach. Opportunities to go farther afield in social relation ships waited for more wealth, more time, better roads, and, finally, for automobiles.

In early days the church was the social center and almost the only one available to the pioneer farmer. A Saturday trip to town could hardly be looked upon as a social occasion. But a church service once a month was a gathering place for new settlers for miles around. Not all who attended church services sought religious blessings. There was a time for [174] conversation before and after services. If the church edifice was small, there was, in summer, plenty of room and comfort outside. A farmer would look for a hired man. Women would discuss their babies, of which there were many. Congregations also had picnics, conventions, celebrations. And there were funerals. But the church's position as a social center declined with the coming of the twentieth century. People's interests broadened, and contacts were more numerous. Increased wealth enabled the settlers to pay railroad fares, travel greater distances, and make more acquaintances. And thus the field was open for the coming of the bygdelags.

The bygdelag movement was essentially one of the first and second generations, of those who were conscious of their Norwegian background, of those who knew the Norwegian language. Bygdelags waited for the time when Norwegian immigrants and their descendants were consciously proud of their ancestry. Such pride deepened when they were no longer "newcomers." The Norwegian heritage became a subject for emphasis and even boasting when Norwegian Americans were convinced that their background was fully equal to that of others in the new land, that their fiber was strong, that their intelligence matched that of other groups, that their future in America was secure, and that they could contribute worthily to American life and character.

It may be granted that large national bygdelags will cease to exist when new generations no longer know the Norwegian language and are less aware of their Norwegian ancestry, and when the mass of immigrant stock is absorbed into the American system. Although individuals may continue to have a keen interest in things Norwegian, there will not be a sufficiently large number of these to maintain countrywide organizations of Americans whose ancestry is traceable to particular districts in Norway. But for their time, for the first half of the twentieth century, they had a distinct function to perform, they served their membership well, and they made a contribution to American history.

Notes

<1> The Vaidris Book, 44 (Minneapolis, 1920).
<2> Norwegian Migration to America: The American Transition, 77n, 582 (Northfield, 1940).
<3> Veblen, Valdris Book, 44.
<4> D. G. Ristad, in Bygdelagenes Fællesraad, Aarbok og julehilsen, (1929).
<5> Nordmanns-forbundet, 32:7-10 (January, 1939). With the issue of January, 1932, the spelling of the name of this periodical was changed from Nordmands forbundet to Nordmanns-forbundet.
<6> Nordmands-forbundet, 23: 181-184 (June, 1930).
<7> Skandinaven almanak og kalender, 97-103 (1929).
<8> Hallingen, 5 (July, 1912).
<9> Bygdelagenes Fællesraad, Aarbok, 55.
<10> Bygdelagenes Fællesraad, Aarbok, 57.
<11> Bygdelagenes Fællesraad, Aarbok, 68.
<12> Bygdelagenes Fællesraad, Aarbok, 75, 79.
<13> K. Bersagel, "Bygdelagsbevægelsen i Canada," in Nordmands-forbundet, 23: 184 (June, 1930).
<14> Nordmanns-forbundet, 32:7-10 (January, 1939); Skandinaven almanak og kalender, 97-103 (1929).

[175]
THE BYGDELAGS AND THEIR PUBLICATIONS

[For the reader's convenience the Norwegian character ø is alphabeted as o.]

BYGDELAGENES FÆLLESRAAD, INC. This is the joint council of the bygdelags. It was organized January 25, 1916, in Minneapolis, and incorporated March 3, 1926. The founders were Lars P. Thorkveen, D. G. Ristad, A. A. Veblen, A. A. Trovatten, L. C. Opsahl. The committee of organization included D. G. Ristad, chairman; L. P. Thorkveen, secretary; and A. A. Veblen, J. T. Berg, C. D. Morck, N. T. Moen, A. A. Trovatten, John C. Gran, and L. C. Opsahl. First officers of the council in 1916 were D. G. Ristad, president; Lars P. Thorkveen, secretary. In 1929 the officers were Lars M. Gimmestad, president; T. A. Walby, first vice-president; Gustav Eide, second vice-president; Eilev O. Bakke, secretary; J. E. Haugen, treasurer. The 1951 officers were M. R. Simons, president; M. E. Helland, first vice-president; Stephan White, second vice-president; Ole Hegdahl, secretary; R. J. Meland, treasurer. Annual meetings are held in Minneapolis; the 1951 meeting occurred on May 1.

The joint council was established as a medium for the carrying out of common endeavors; to encourage and promote the welfare of the bygdelags. Objectives were stated as follows in 1929 by the council's editor, P. L. Slagsvold: "(1) To constitute a common bond between the bygdelags; (2) to constitute a forum for the lags, where questions of mutual interest and consequence may be discussed by representatives of the lags; (3) to act as a counseling organization for the support, direction, and furtherance of the bygdelag movement in the development and execution of its cultural enterprise; (4) to constitute a committee to assume the responsibility for the execution of occasional and permanent undertakings of the bygdelags; (5) to care for and ad minister the common property of the bygdelags and to use the means for the common advance of the lags." Membership is made up of two representatives from each lag.

A preliminary publication of Bygdelagenes Fællesraad was Konstitution (n.p., n.d.). In 1929 appeared Aarbok og julehilsen, (Minneapolis), edited by P. L. Slagsvold. This was intended as [176] the first of a series of yearbooks to be published by the council, but no subsequent numbers have appeared. It contains a Christmas greeting; a foreword; an introduction entitled "Fællesraadets aarbok," by P. L. Slagsvold; obituaries; verse; an article on the Norse heritage; articles on the joint council; an article on the independence and enterprise of women; the emigrant's farewell; the origin of the bygdelags, by A. A. Veblen; descriptive essays on twenty-four lags; a greeting from Norway (verse); the Seventeenth of May celebration at the State Fair Grounds, St. Paul, in 1914; the Norse-American Centennial in 1925; President Coolidge at the centennial; the meaning of the centennial for the Norwegian people in America; reports of meetings of the Bygdelagenes Fællesraad; the new Eidsvold (verse); the council and its constitution; report of the auditing committee; officers of the Bygdelagenes Fællesraad, with portraits; the celebration in Winnipeg; the festivities at Nidaros (Trondheim) in 1930; "Vi vil hjem," verse, by D. G. Ristad; festivities of the common council, or "Norwegian week" in Minneapolis in 1930; the children of America, by D. G. Ristad; our times, by J. E. Haugen; the movement for what is Norwegian in America, by Waldemar Ager; and a short verse by K. G. Nilsen, "Naar løvet falder" (When the Leaves Fall).

AGDERLAGET. This lag was organized June 6, 1925, at the time of the Norse-American Centennial. Agder is on the southeast coast of Norway; many of her sons are sailors and are scattered along the American coasts; hence, it is difficult to assemble them and their families in a social organization. The first officers, for the years 1925-27, were Reverend T. Tjornhom, president; Reverend L. Foss, vice-president; Reverend Wilhelm Pettersen, secretary; H. H. Dahl, treasurer. Annual meetings followed in the Northwest. The 1950 meeting was held in Luverne, Minnesota, June 16-18.

The organization's purpose was to form a bond between the scattered folk hailing from Agder. No publications have been issued. The society is affiliated with Bygdelagenes Fællesraad, whose publication, Aarbok og julehilsen, carries a statement about Agderlaget, page 38. [177]

BERGENSLAGET. This lag was organized in Minneapolis, May 17, 1907, as "Ulriken." Officers were Lars Trovik, president; John Michelson, secretary; Henrietta Nelsen, treasurer. Other founders were Albert Sivertsen, Margaret Madsen, and Sophie Knudsen. The society discontinued meetings after 1908 with the removal of Lars Trovik from the city, but it was revived in 1914, mostly by efforts of the same members. At that time the name was changed to Bergenslaget, representing the city of Bergen and its environs in Norway. Outside members have been sought, but the organization has remained on the whole local to Minneapolis.

Monthly meetings have been the rule, with an annual meeting on the Seventeenth of May or thereabouts, which includes a banquet with speeches, music, and other social features. The object has been principally social, although gifts have been sent to the home community in Norway. No publications have been issued.

FITJARLAGET. This lag was organized June 28, 1928, at Hamar, North Dakota. First officers were Reverend M. E. Helland, president; Jacob Lierbo, vice-president; John K. Rimmereid, secretary; Ole C. Rydland, treasurer. Other founders were Ole Skaalen, Rasmus Eidøen, Hans Engevik, and Magne Ravn.

Annual meetings followed in the Northwest. The 1951 meeting was held at Hamar, North Dakota, June 30-July 1. Programs have included speeches, music, films, readings, and religious services; and the festivities have generally concluded with a banquet. There have been no publications.

FLEKKEFJORDLAGET. A preliminary meeting for the organization of Flekkefjordlaget was held in Minneapolis February 928, 1926, and a permanent organization was effected March 7, 1926. G. J. Guddal was elected president; Sivert Thompson, vice president; Ole A. Jacobsen, secretary; Harald Hansen, financial secretary; Anton Raunestad, treasurer.

Annual meetings have been held in Minneapolis. Programs have included speeches, music, readings, films, and so forth, with an evening banquet. The objectives of the society have been mainly social, but there have been gifts to the home community [178] in Norway. The society is mainly local to Minneapolis at present. There have been no publications.

GUDBRANDSDALSLAGET. A group from Gudbrandsdal, Norway, organized the society "Kringen" in Minneapolis, with 83 members, February 3, 1906. Ivar Oien was chairman. Money was collected for a statue, which was erected in Gudbrandsdal, Nor way, in 1912. A Gudbrandsdalslag was organized in Fargo, North Dakota, in 1908, by O. A. Houg, O. C. Lindvig, and Ole E. Hagen. A mass meeting of immigrants from Gudbrandsdal was held in Minneapolis on September 6, 1908. Reverend L. P. Thorkveen was chairman, and L. K. Brandser, secretary. A national organization of all groups from Gudbrandsdal was effected in Minneapolis on September 12, 1909. First officers were Reverend Lars P. Thorkveen, president; Bersvend Johnson, vice-president; Ivar Olstad, secretary; M. A. Overlie, treasurer; M. R. Odegard, John O. Lee, Jr., and T. G. Domaas, members of the board. The 1914 membership was given as 1,200, and the 1928 membership as 3,700.

Annual meetings followed, most of them taking place in the Northwest. There have been subdivisions of the lag, such as the Nordvestre Gudbrandsdalslag, which met at Devils Lake, North Dakota, June 23-25, 1950. The Norwegian language has been used consistently. The objectives of the lag have been mainly social; but there have been prominent charitable activities, including memorial gifts, gifts to old people's homes, churches, and so forth. Programs have included speeches, music, films, and other entertainment, with banquets. The 1950 meeting was held at Montevideo, Minnesota, June 16-18, the 1951 meeting at Eau Claire, Wisconsin, June 22-24.

Gudbrandsdalslaget published a yearbook, Aarbok, in twenty-three volumes, 1911-38, 1941, 1949. The last of these, edited by Ivar Olstad, has the additional title: Gudbrandsdalslagets 40 aars jubilem, 1909-1949, and contains a short account of the lag, pages 34-37. The first ten volumes were edited by Reverend Lars P. Thorkveen. Volumes 11-19 were edited by John Ovren, and volumes 20-22 by M. Casper Jolinshoy. The first volumes have much church material, with articles and views descriptive of churches in Gudbrandsdal. There are reports of annual [179] meetings, lists of officers and members, minor contributions from members, portraits, speeches, Norwegian history, and miscellaneous material. Volume 11-12 gives an account of the death of L. P. Thorkveen (1857-1923) with a biographical sketch. There is more biographical information in volumes 22 and 23; but there is also considerable material descriptive of the Norwegian community. Volume 22 has an article entitled "The Rape of Norway," by Joseph P. Brendal, referring to the Second World War. Officers and members are listed in volume 23.

A second publication, in four volumes, 1923-26, entitled Gudbrandsdølernes julehilsen, was edited by John Ovren and is a type of yearbook. The contents parallel those of the Aarbok; but, in line with the title, it has more material relating to the Christmas holiday.

A third publication, also edited by John Ovren and following the one above, was Gudbrandsdølen, a sort of news sheet in pamphlet form, covering the years 1927-31. Besides news items, there are reports of meetings, articles on Norway, and some biography.

HADELANDSLAGET. This lag was organized September 7, 1910, in St. Paul, Minnesota, having an initial membership of 12. First officers were T. A. Walby, president; Iver Larson, vice-president; Per Jacobson, secretary and treasurer. Other founders were Ole Nokleby, Otto Kammerud, Erick Nelson, E. S. Gunderson. T. A. Walby continued as president until 1940, when he was succeeded by Einar Dahl.

Annual meetings took place. The 1950 meeting was held in Devils Lake, North Dakota, June 15-17, and the 1951 meeting in Fergus Falls, Minnesota, June 21-23. Programs included a banquet, music, speeches, plays, films, and other entertainment. In addition to other gifts to the home district in Norway, the lag contributed funds for the restoration of the Lynner Church in Hadeland.

The society issued a yearbook, entitled Hadelandslaget, in three volumes, 1911, 1917, 1921. The introductions were written by T. A. Walby, who was in charge of the publication. The 1917 volume contains short biographies of immigrants from Hadeland, concluding with a list of members of the lag. The 1921 volume [180] contains biographies of immigrants from Hadeland, short biographical notes on soldiers of Hadeland origin in the First World War, and a list of members.

A minor publication is Oplysninger om medlemmer af Hadelandslaget (Sacred Heart, Minnesota, n.d.), which contains bio graphical sketches of members of Hadelandslaget.

The society started a serial publication, Brua (The Bridge), in September, 1921, which has been issued in thirty-five numbers, 1921-51. T. A. Walby was editor during his presidency, assisted by Louis Blegen and others. The periodical contains lists of officers, announcements of meetings, news about men and women whose origin is Hadeland, letters, gossip, anecdotes, news of industrial and economic conditions in Norway, a description of Norwegian scenery, Hadeland history, reminiscences, necrology. The interest displayed is centered more in Norway than in America, the publication evidencing pride of ancestry, race, and fatherland. Biographical sketches in all of these publications are extensive.

HALLINGLAGET I AMERIKA. One of the early lags was Hallinglaget, which was organized at Walcott, North Dakota, March 9, 1907. Officers in 1912 were Olaf Th. Sherping, president; I. L. Knudson, vice-president; J. P. Hersgaard, secretary; H. E. Ulsaker, corresponding secretary; J. R. Johnson, historian. Annual meetings have been held in the Northwest. The 1950 meeting was held at Williston, North Dakota, June 9-11, and the 1951 meeting at Moorhead, Minnesota, June 13-15.

The purposes of this lag are mentioned in the introduction to the present compilation. A memorial gift of $20,000 was sent to Hailing, Norway, in 1914 for the benefit of the needy. Programs have been varied. A banquet, featuring Norwegian food, was included as a matter of course. There were speeches, music, films, and other entertainment, including a "springdans og hailing."

The society published Halling-minne, edited by Ole Løvdokken, in twelve numbers, 1908-12. Hallingen, et skrift for hallinger i Amerika og andetsteds was published in Fargo, North Dakota, in 1912. A serial publication, Hallingen, which was begun in July, 1912, has continued to date, published in Fargo, Minneapolis, and elsewhere. The December 1950 issue was number 153. The [181] publication contains reports of the meetings of the lag; news items; financial reports; letters from Norway and from settlements in America; necrology; sketches and news from Norway; biographical notes, sometimes with portraits; stories of American life in pioneer settlements; reminiscences; genealogy. In the early numbers there is much material from Norway; in later numbers, proportionately less. The Norwegian language has been used in the publications as well as in the meetings.

HARDANGERLAGET. A preliminary meeting for the purpose of forming this lag was held in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, in 1910. Another preliminary meeting, to effect a business organization, was held in Sioux Fails on August 15, 1911. Organization was completed, with the adoption of the constitution, at a meeting in Sioux Falls, September 28-29, 1911. First officers were S. S. Tveit, president; Tosten T. Sexe, vice-president; S. A. Jordal, secretary; Ole Prestegaard, treasurer; H. S. Hilleboe, historian. Other founders were Vollert Hildahl, Tom Questad, and Lars Berven. In 1911 the membership was given as 241 charter members. Annual meetings followed in the Northwest. The 1950 meeting was held in Willmar, Minnesota, June 16-17. Programs included speeches, music, films of Norway, and other entertainment. A banquet featuring Norwegian food was characteristic. On Sundays there was a religious service.

The objective of the organization, as stated by Samson Jordal in Aarbok of Bygdelagenes Fællesraad, page 50, was as follows, "By means of conventions to maintain personal acquaintance and friendship among emigrants from Hardanger and their posterity in this country; to collect the history of Hardanger families in this country; to work for the maintenance of good and useful recollections of Hardanger, the study of the Norwegian language, and for the preservation of all that is good and noble, which, on a Christian basis, has unfolded itself in Norwegian life, and which may be of use and service for this our country and its people." The lag contributed $500 for a Norwegian memorial in 1914, the occasion of Norway's centennial.

In 1912 the society published Hardangerlaget, dets grundlov og charter members (Decorah, Iowa), which contained the constitution of the lag. In 1925 the society issued Hardangerlaget, [182] 1911-1925 (Sioux Falls, South Dakota), edited by Samson Jordal and prepared for the occasion of the Norse-American Centennial. There are reports of annual meetings, 1911-24 inclusive; constitution and charter members; annual lists of new members; sketches from Hardanger; stories of some of the district's great men; "Brudefærden i Hardanger," with music; history of emigration to various Norwegian settlements in the United States; an article on Guni Endreson Roseland; illustrations of log houses and other pioneer dwellings; and a chapter of biographies of "Haringer" in this country.

HEDALSLAGET. This lag is included in L. M. Gimmestad's list of 1929, as reported in Skandinaven almanak og kalender, 97-103 (1929). No further information and no publications have been found.

HJØRUNDFJORDLAGET. No information is available concerning this lag, except that its president in 1941 was T. A. Hustad of Granite Falls, Minnesota.

HUBDALSLAGET. This lag was organized October 20, 1913, in Ostrander, Minnesota. Officers in 1914 were H. Engh, president; O. A. Melby, vice-president; Ludvig Gullickson, secretary; H. O. Larson, treasurer. Annual meetings followed for a number of years. The 1914 meeting was held in Cashton, Wisconsin, the 1915 meeting in Clermont, Iowa. The organization is no longer active.

The society published one yearbook, Hurdalslagets aarbog: Rapport om stevnet ved Cashton, Wis., 19-21 sept., 1914 (Cashton, Wisconsin, 1915). A large part of this volume is devoted to a list of immigrants to the United States from Hurdal. It contains also a list of members of the lag.

KONGSBERGLAGET. A preliminary meeting for the organization of this society was held in Minneapolis in September, 1920. Organization was completed, with the adoption of a constitution, at the State Fair Grounds in St. Paul, June 24-25, 1921. First officers were H. C. Omholt, president; Johan Nordlien, secretary; A. O. Lee, treasurer; A. P. Lee, historian. Annual meetings continued in Minnesota, with the exception of the 1927 meeting, which was held in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin. The society joined [183] with Numedalslaget in 1929 to form Numedal, Kongsberg, og Omegn Lag.

The society published six yearbooks, 1924-30; the last two are actually the first two issued by the combined lag. The first volume, under the editorship of A. H. Ristvedt, contains a list of officers, lists of members, reports of meetings, a number of sketches from Norway, biographies of Norwegian Americans from Kongsberg, and so on. Later volumes follow the same general pattern. The last volume, 1930, contains the constitution of the new lag, a list of members, and biographies. Later publications are listed under Numedal, Kongsberg, og Omegn Lag.

KRISTIANIALAGET, see OSLOLAGET.

LANDINGSLAGET. This lag was organized in Minneapolis, June 16, 1910. First officers were H. A. M. Steen, president; Cap. Rossing, vice-president; C. O. Norlie, temporary secretary of the first meeting; C. H. Beck, secretary and treasurer. H. A. M. Steen was president for thirteen years.

Annual meetings were held in the Northwest. The 1950 meeting was held in Rothsay, Minnesota, June 16-17, and the 1951 meeting was held in Fosston, Minnesota. Programs included a banquet, speeches, music, readings, plays, films of Norway, and other entertainment. The Norwegian language has been used.

The objectives of Landingslaget have been stated in the introduction to this report. Among charities may be mentioned the raising of 10,114 kroner, the income from which was to be distributed each Christmas to those in need among landings in Norway.

Landingslaget has issued one publication: Landings-bogen, 1924 (Decorah, Iowa, 1924). The volume has a large section of short biographies, and sketches of Peter S. Waslien, Torkel Rossing, Bjørn Lomsdalen, and M. C. Waller. There is some genealogy; an article on emigration and its causes; the earliest emigration from Torpen; articles on settlements in Bode, Iowa, Richland County, Wisconsin, Allamakee County, Iowa, Pope County, Minnesota, and Traill County, North Dakota; an account of the origin of Landingslaget; the Norwegian heritage; stories; and miscellaneous material. [184]

LEKSVIKLAGET. This lag was organized July 6, 1941, at Mabel, Minnesota, with C. Dahl as the first president. Annual meetings were planned, but no record has been found of these.

MJØSENLAGET I AMERIKA. A preliminary meeting of about 50 men and women, called by O. M. Onsum, met in Minneapolis, August 24, 1910, for the purpose of organizing, a Mjøsenlag. A. Halmrast became chairman of the organization committee. A permanent organization was effected in Minneapolis, June 7, 1911, with about 200 present. Officers elected were Thore Gunderson, president; H. A. Sagen, vice-president; O. M. Onsum, secretary; Richard Wick, assistant secretary; A. J. Newgard, treasurer. In 1930 the officers were M. J. Rohne, president; C. F. Peterson, vice-president; C. A. Kvisgaard, secretary; Alf Kjeverud, treasurer; Gustav Kvisgaard, historian. Membership in 1911 was given as 200; in 1915, 600; in 1919, 900; in 1927, 750; in 1930, 400.

Annual meetings were held in the Northwest and were mainly social, with programs resembling those of other lags. There was a Mjøsen-Oplands Laget meeting at Pigeon Falls, Wisconsin, June 10-11, 1950, according to announcements.

The society published ten yearbooks, Mjøsenlagets aarbog, 1915-30, omitting the years 1923-26. The title varies slightly. There are lists of officers; lists of members; reports of annual meetings; articles and sketches concerning Mjøsen, Norway, some of them illustrated; biographies of members and of others hailing from Mjøsen; necrology; a list of soldiers in the First World War in the 1919 volume; an article on the first emigrants from "Opdalsbygderne," 1815-1866; and miscellaneous items.

MODUM-EIKER LAGET. This lag was organized at the Norse American Centennial in St. Paul, June 6, 1925. First officers were August Klagstad, president; Nils Haugen, vice-president; Sigurd Holtan, secretary-treasurer. Meetings were held annually in the Northwest. The 1950 gathering, held June 17 in Minneapolis, was a twenty-five-year jubilee meeting. Programs were largely social, with a banquet, speeches, music, and other entertainment.

The object of the organization is stated earlier in the present [185] report. Gifts have been sent to the home district in Norway. The Norwegian language has been used throughout.

The society has published four yearbooks, Aarbog for Modum Eiker Laget, 1933, 1937, 1938/40, and 1950. Contents include reports of the meetings; lists of officers; articles relating to Modum and Eiker in Norway; reminiscences; short biographies; necrology; and miscellaneous material.

MØRE OG ROMSDALS FYLKES LAG. This lag was formed by the union of Romsdalslaget, Søndmørlaget, and Nordmørlaget. Annual meetings continued after the union, the 1950 meeting being held in Duluth, Minnesota, June 14-16.

NAMDALSLAGET I AMERIKA. Namdalslaget was organized as Naumdøla Samband, September 8, 1926, at Klondike, Iowa. First officers were Einar Hilsen, president; Elling Strand, vice-president; Arne W. Nakling, secretary. About 40 families constituted the first membership. In 1929 the membership was given as 500. The name was changed to Namdalslaget i Amerika in 1930.

Annual meetings were held until 1949, when it was decided to meet biennially. The 1951 meeting was August 24-25 at Minneapolis. Programs have included banquets, speeches, music, films, folk dances, readings, and other entertainment. If meetings included Sundays, there would be religious services.

The objectives of the society are to promote that which is genuinely Norwegian and to give financial assistance to the home community of Namdal, Norway. The organization set up a fund, one half of which was to go to charity and the other half for the education of youth. A contribution was made to the museum at Namdal.

The society co-operated with Snaasalaget and held conventions in common with that lag. In its publication is a supplement entitled "Snaasingen, offisielt organ for Snaasalaget i Amerika," edited by P. O. Bugge.

The publication of this lag is Naumdøla, nummer ein, offisielt organ for Naumdøla Samband (Astoria, South Dakota, 1929), edited by Einar Hilsen. The book has an introduction; the program of the convention at Astoria, South Dakota, in 1929; an article on the establishment of the society; announcements; news [186] items; greetings; list of officers; the constitution; a statement of collections and gifts; some Norwegian history; reprints of newspaper articles concerning the lag; letters from Norway. "Snaasingen," which occupies pages 305-324 of this publication, contains much the same sort of material in reference to Snaasalaget.

NAUMDØLA SAMBAND, see NAMDALSLAGET I AMERIKA.

NERSTRANDSLAGET. The name of this lag is also spelled Nedstrandslaget. It is included here, although it is considered a sub-lag of Stavanger Amt Laget i Amerika, because it has issued an independent publication. It became a separate organization Au gust 28-29, 1912, at Forest City, Iowa. G. A. Kalsheim was first president, and S. M. Amdahl, first secretary-treasurer. Meetings and programs are held with Stavanger Amt Laget.

The publication is En kort oversigt over lagets virke, samt biografler med billeder over vore gutter, der deltog i verdens-krigen, og biografier med billeder over lagets medlemmer (Decorah, Iowa, 1920). The "Forord" is signed by B. K. Johnson, historian. There is a short history of the activities of the lag, together with biographies, including portraits, of men who served in the First World War, and biographies, with portraits, of members.

NORDFJORDLAGET. A preliminary meeting for the organization of Nordfjordlaget was held in Como Park, St. Paul, September 8, 1909, and organization was completed in Minneapolis June 11-13, 1910. First officers were R. J. Meland, president; Hans Monson, vice-president; R. Anderson, secretary; J. E. Nord, treasurer. Annual meetings followed in the Northwest, usually in Minnesota, but there were no meetings in 1917 and 1918. The 1950 meeting was in Minneapolis June 23-25, and the 1951 meeting in Granite Falls, Minnesota, June 22-24. The society has had a large membership, beginning with about 200 in 1909.

Special activities have been a gift to commemorate Norway's centennial of 1914, charities to Nordfjord, a subsidy to promote the planting of timber in Nordfjord, and a gift of $10,500 in 1920. Programs have included banquets, speeches, music, other entertainment, and religious services. [187]

A yearbook, Nordfjordlagets aarbok, has been published in twenty-five volumes, 1918-50, the last volume covering 1948-50. There are many articles about Nordfjord, reports of meetings, lists of members, and articles on the history of the lag. Notable among writers on the history of the lag and of the bygdelag in general was the late Reverend Lars M. Gimmestad. There are in these books articles on immigration; biographies of immigrants from Nordfjord; lists of men and women of Nordfjord origin who served in the First World War, with their biographies, appearing in the 1923 and 1924 yearbooks; accounts of trips to Norway; accounts of Nordfjord settlements in this country; genealogy; necrology.

A separate publication is Nordfjordingernes historie i Amerika, by Lars M. Gimmestad, with the assistance of R. J. Meland, Ole I. Steen, A. M. Monson, and others (Minneapolis, 1940). This is an elaborate attempt at a comprehensive history of men and women in America whose origin was Nordfjord, Norway.

NORDHORDLANDSLAGET I AMERIKA. This lag was organized September 3, 1913, in Minneapolis. First officers were L. L. Fylling, president; Lars Landaas, vice-president; Otto Mostrom, secretary; O. J. Hohle, treasurer; J. J. Heldahl, Andrew Olson, Ingebrigt Oftedahl, members of the board. Annual meetings have been held in the Northwest. The 1950 meeting was held in Granite Falls, Minnesota, June 16-17.

Programs have been social and cultural in nature, with banquets, speeches, music, films, and so forth. The meeting of June 21-23, 1929, at Canton, South Dakota, featured a speech by B. J. Rothnem entitled "Traits of Character of the Norwegian People and Their Gain or Loss in Transition from Norwegian

to American Citizenship."

The objectives of the lag as stated in its constitution are quoted in the introduction to this report.

Nordhordlandslaget published four yearbooks, 1915-1932. Aarbog 1-2 was published in one volume in 1915. A second number, Tillæg til Nordhordlandslagets aarbog, appeared in 1925. The next number was dated 1932. There followed a Festskrift for Nordhordlandslaget i Amerika, 1913-1938 (St. James, Minnesota, [188] 1938). This is a twenty-five-year jubilee volume edited by Stephen Dale.

The first volume contains a report of the 1915 meeting, a description of Nordhordland, a report of a trip to Norway in 1914, and a list of members. The Tillæg contains a list of new members added since 1916, and reports of the fourth meeting held in Fargo, North Dakota, in 1916, of the fifth meeting in Minneapolis in 1920, and of the sixth meeting in Clarkfield, Minnesota, in 1921. No meetings were held from 1917-20 inclusive. The 1932 volume contains a list of members and reports of the seventh to sixteenth meetings, 1922-31. The Festskrift, with the cover-title "25 aars jubilæum 1913-1938," contains the constitution, the list of members, and reports of the meetings to date.

NORDLANDSLAGET AV AMERIKA. A preliminary meeting of those who promoted this lag was held in Minneapolis on October 22, 1908. The society completed its organization January 20, 1909. C. D. Morck was first president, and Iver A. Johansen was first secretary. In 1913 Iver A. Johansen was president; Julius B. Baumann, secretary; Axel Bergh, financial secretary; Mrs. Johanne Klovstad, treasurer; H. H. Borgen, vice-president; L. Straumann and John Heitmann, editorial board. Julius Baumann became editor the following year, with Johan Gregor as assistant editor.

Annual meetings followed in the Northwest. The 1950 meeting was held in Watertown, South Dakota, June 8-10, and the 1951 meeting in Moorhead, Minnesota, June 7-9. The Norwegian language is used. Programs have included speeches, music, readings, films and other entertainment, and banquets. The organization has sent numerous gifts to Nordland, Norway, including a lifeboat in 1913.

Nordlandslaget has issued a serial publication, beginning December, 1912, and continuing to date. The first two numbers were entitled simply Nordlandslaget, December, 1912 and December, 1913, after which the title was changed to Nord-Norge. The issue for December, 1950, was number 138. The publication is characterized by material descriptive of the home district, Nordland, Norway. There are lists of officers and members; reminiscences; sketches; stories; letters; biography; necrology. [189] However, there is a preponderance of Norwegian material. The present editor of Nordlandslaget is C. A. Sandhei, Fort Ransom, North Dakota.

NORDMØRLAGET. This lag was organized in Minneapolis at the time of the Norse-American Centennial, June, 1925. The name of the organization is also given as "Det nationale Nordmørlag af Amerika," page 69 of the Aarbok of Bygdelagenes Fællesraad. In 1929 the officers were Reverend M. O. Silseth, president; M. E. Maridal, secretary. Annual meetings were held in the Northwest. The lag later joined with Romsdalslaget and Søndmørlaget to form Møre og Romsdals Fylkes Lag.

NUMEDAL, KONGSBERG, OG OMEGN LAG. This lag was organized at a joint meeting of Numedalslaget i Amerika and Kongsberglaget at Fergus Falls, Minnesota, June 15, 1928, being a union of the two societies. Numedalslaget had functioned during 1908-28, and Kongsberglaget during 1920-28. Elected officers of the combined lag were Alexander Wiley, president; H. C. Omholt, vice-president; Peter Everson, general secretary; Andrew Stenseth, secretary for the Kongsberg division; O. O. Enestvedt, secretary for the Numedal division; R. G. Reierson, treasurer; S. G. Morgan and T. H. Ristvedt, historians; Thore Brugaard and A. A. Sampson, auditors. Annual meetings of the new organization followed. The 1950 convention was held in Minneapolis, June 15. Programs included speeches, music, films and other entertainment, and a banquet.

The objectives of the lag are stated as follows: "Numedal, Kongsberg, og Omegn Lag is a society of the natives of Numedal and Kongsberg, Norway and their descendants, for the furthering of acquaintance among themselves, the publication of their pioneer history in America, and the promotion of cultural relations and friendship between Norway and America." A statement of the society is in the Aarbok of Bygdelagenes Fællesraad, pages 84-86.

The Aarbok of this lag has appeared in twenty-one volumes, 1929-51, published in Decorah, Iowa, and elsewhere. The volumes have a Kongsberg division and a Numedal division. There are lists of officers and members; reports of meetings; [190] announcements; articles descriptive of the home districts in Norway; letters, biographies; genealogies; necrology; reminiscences; verse; sketches; miscellaneous items. There is more material from Nor way in earlier numbers; more material from the United States in later numbers. The Norwegian language is used throughout.

NUMEDALSLAGET I AMERIKA. This lag was organized in Fargo, North Dakota, June 17, 1908. First officers were H. H. Strom, president; G. N. Midgaarden, vice-president; Halvor Steinarson, secretary-treasurer. H. H. Strom continued as president until his death in 1917. At the June 15, 1928 meeting in Fergus Falls, Minnesota, it was decided to join with Kongsberglaget to form Numedal, Kongsberg, og Omegn Lag.

Objectives were mainly social and cultural and followed the pattern of other lags. Gifts were sent to the home district in Norway, including a memorial gift of $6,000 in 1914. Programs at conventions included speeches, music, readings, other features, and banquets.

The lag published an Addressebog over Numedalslagets medlemmer og lagets grundlov og bestyrelse, 1912-1913 (Decorah, Iowa, 1913). This is an address book of members, with the constitution and a list of officers. A yearbook, Aarbog, was published in fourteen volumes, 1915-28. Early volumes carry considerable material descriptive of Numedal, Norway, with less Norwegian material in later volumes. The first number has a biography of Oley Nelson, Civil War veteran and later commander of the G.A.R. The volumes contain reports of annual meetings; lists of officers and members; lists of Numedal men in responsible positions; a list of veterans of the Civil War; pioneer histories and stories; genealogies; reminiscences; and related material.

A later publication was Numedalslagets festskrift, 1908-1933 (Minneapolis, 1933). This review of twenty-five years contains a historical account of the lag by O. O. Enestvedt, biographies of officers, pioneer stories, views from Norway, sketches of officers, verse, and portraits of leaders of the lag.

As a supplement to volume 11 (1925), the society published Reisebreve, skrevne underveis til Jerusalem, af forhenværende sogneprest til Nore, Numedal, Carl Christian Olsen, ved [191] overlærer Emil Olsen, Oslo (Decorah, Iowa, 1925). This is a collection of letters written on a journey to Jerusalem by a Numedal clergyman.

OPDALSLAGET I AMERIKA. This lag was organized on the west coast, where there are large settlements from Opdal. The first meeting was held in Seattle, Washington, August 1, 1920. A permanent organization, with the adoption of a constitution, was effected August 7, 1921, at Everett, Washington. First officers were L. E. Haugen, president; O. H. Vognild, vice-president; Erik H. Loe, secretary, treasurer, and historian. The society had a membership of 500 in 1929.

Annual meetings followed on the west coast. An eastern division was organized at Centerville, South Dakota, July 26, 1925. Each group has its own convention, and usually they act independently, the main bond between them being their publication. The western division held its 1950 and 1951 meetings at Seattle. Since the meeting is for one day only, the program is necessarily short. Following a picnic lunch at noon, there is generally a lecture by some man of prominence, music, a business session, and other features.

This organization has as its particular purpose the publication of biographies and histories of the first immigrants from Opdal. This is in addition to the social and cultural aims.

A yearbook, Opdalslagets aarbok, was published in thirteen volumes, 1921/22-1939/41, at Everett, Washington, and else where. The first volume contains biographies, with portraits, and a list of members. The second volume, 1923, has a similar make up, with the addition of some material from Opdal. Volume 3, 1925, contains biographies and a list of members. The fourth volume, 1926, has material from Opdal, Norway; biographies; a list of members; and an obituary. The fifth volume, 19927, has an introduction; a list of officers; an article on the church at Opdal; biographies; a list of members; necrology; and miscellaneous items. The sixth volume, 1928, has an introduction; report of the annual meeting; articles on "Our Inheritance"; sketches from Opdal; articles on Reverend Anfin Olson Utheim and Reverend P. P. Hagen; biographies; an article on the cathedral at [192] Trondheim; a list of members; necrology; miscellaneous items. The seventh volume, 1929, has biographies; a list of members; an obituary; a report of the annual meeting; and miscellaneous items. The eighth volume is similarly made up. The ninth volume, 1931, contains biography and some genealogy. The same may be said of the tenth volume, 1933. The eleventh volume, 1934/35, has pioneer stories. The twelfth volume, 1936/38, has considerable material relating to Opdal, Norway, and articles about Seattle, the state of Washington, and Duluth, Minnesota; necrology; pioneer stories; minutes of the previous conventions; a review of the yearbooks; a list of members. The thirteenth volume, 1939/41, has an introduction; report of the president; letters; a report on why the southeastern part of South Dakota has been called "Opdalsbygden" (The Opdal Settlement); biographies; reminiscences; necrology; minutes of the previous meetings; and a list of members.

OSLOLAGET. This lag was organized as Kristianialaget on August 13, 1913, in Minneapolis. The name was changed to Oslolaget in 1925, simultaneously with the change of name of Norway's capital city. The society has been largely a Minneapolis organization. First officers were Fritz Maurer, president; John H. Bovim, secretary; Carl Jacobsen, treasurer. The chairman of the organization committee was G. Biornstad.

Annual meetings have been continued in Minneapolis, with additional monthly meetings that are largely of a social nature. The society collected money for a memorial gift to the city of Oslo and has sponsored other gifts.

As Kristianialaget, the society issued a serial publication, Vikværingen (December 1915-May, 1922), published in Minneapolis. The publication was edited by George N. Ekstrand except for the last two numbers, which were edited by O. J. Haugen. It contains reports of meetings; lists of officers; lists of members; financial reports; sketches relating to Christiania; biographies; necrology; news; an article on the economic aspects of immigration; Norwegian history relating to Christiania; biographical sketches, with portraits, of Christiania soldiers in the First World War; miscellaneous material; and several reports on the memorial gift to Christiania. [193]

ØSTERDALSLAGET. This lag was organized June 8, 1910, at Fergus Falls, Minnesota. First officers were N. T. Moen, president, and E. E. Løbeck, secretary. Annual meetings have been held in the Northwest. The 1950 meeting took place in Fergus Falls, Minnesota, June 23-25.

Programs have been diversified, with a banquet, speeches, music, readings, films, and other entertainment. On Sundays religious services are held. The object of the organization is stated as follows, "Further to implant in our people, and especially in our youth, feelings of honor and gratitude towards Norway and her people." Many gifts have been sent to the Norwegian community.

The society has published six yearbooks, 1913, 1914, 1917, 1920, 1923, 1925/26. The first four had the title: Østerdalslagets mindeskrift, and the last two, Østerdalslagets aarbok. They contain reports of meetings; short biographies; reminiscences; stories of trips to America; stories of pioneer life; articles on early settlements; articles about Østerdal, Norway; a report on the Norse American Centennial in 1925 and President Coolidge's speech; anecdotes; verse; and miscellaneous material.

A separate publication, Østerdølenes saga, by K. G. Nilsen, was published in 1938. The first part is a description of Østerdal, its physical condition, its inhabitants, and the story of the coming of man into the region; articles on life in Østerdal; famous people; names of emigrants. The second part deals with America: migration from Europe; some account of the United States; short biographies of immigrants; lists of famous men and women; American Lutheran ministers whose origin is traced to Trysil, Norway; Østerdal soldiers in the First World War, with portraits; and minor articles by various authors.

ØSTFOLDLAGET. This lag was organized as Smaalenslaget i Amerika, June 4-7, 1915, at Kenyon, Minnesota. The first officers were J. T. Berg, president; Andrew J. Snesrud, secretary; August Anonby, treasurer. Annual meetings have been held in the North west. The name of the district in Norway was changed from Smaalenene to Østfold, which accounts for the change of name of the lag.

Programs were mainly social, with banquets, picnics, music, [194] speeches, and religious services on Sundays. Meetings continued regularly to 1942, after which the society became largely inactive.

Smaalenslaget issued four yearbooks, Aarbok for Smaalenslaget i Amerika (Kasson and St. Paul, Minnesota, 1919, 1922, 1927, 1930). The first volume, 1919, contains reports of the four meetings; a list of officers; an article on "Smaalenenes amt"; rules for Smaalenslaget; short biographies; a sketch; and a list of members. The second volume, 1922, contains an article on Smaalenings in America, by Waldemar Ager; an article on Hans Nilsen Hauge, by O. H. Oace; an article on a trip to America, by J. A. Bergh; several articles on enterprises and conditions in the home district in Norway; notes on a trip to Norway by Waldemar Ager; reports of the 1920, 1921, and 1922 meetings; a list of new members; notes on contributors; and minor items. The third volume, 1927, contains a list of officers; some biographies; sketches and illustrations of churches; and notes about members and others from the home district. The fourth yearbook, 1930, contains announcements; a list of officers; a foreword by O. H. Oace; articles about Norway; an article on Roald Amundsen; the story of the first smaalenings who emigrated to America, by Aug. Wasboe; and short biographies. The first, third, and fourth yearbooks were edited by O. H. Oace, and the second volume, by Waldemar Ager.

The society also published Regler for Smaalenslaget og medlemsliste (n.p., 1917). This pamphlet contains rules and a list of members.

RINGERIKSLAGET. The organization meeting of this lag was held at Albert Lea, Minnesota, June 7, 1916. Annual meetings were held in the Northwest. The 1918 officers were Vegger Gulbrandsen, president; Erik Johnsrud, secretary.

The organization first adopted Samband, published by Valdris Samband, as its official organ, but began its own publication in 1919. It was issued by the lag's historian, 0. S. Johnson, under the title, Utvandringshistorie fra Ringeriksbygderne (Minneapolis and Decorah, 1919, 1921, 1925, 1930). The first volume gives an account and description of Ringerike from the earliest times; lists of emigrants from Ringerike; a number of items from Norway; list of members. Volume 2 contains some Norwegian [195] history; pioneer stories; a purported genealogy of George Washington, showing Norwegian connections; sketches and biographies; language samples; reminiscences; old superstitions; soldiers in the First World War; list of members. Volume 8 has a portrait of Hans Martin Heen, president; articles on great folk migrations; Norwegians in American wars; reports of meetings; genealogy; recollections of pioneer times; biography; obituaries; anecdotes; verse; list of members; minor items. Volume 4 has an introduction; articles on the Vinland voyages; an article on the introduction of Christianity into Norway; Norwegian history; emigration to America in the seventeenth century; biographies; obituaries; the speech of President Coolidge at the Norse American Centennial in 1925; and miscellaneous items. From the contents it will be seen that the publishing activity of this lag was much more ambitious than that of most of these societies.

ROMSDALSLAGET. This lag was organized in Minneapolis, June 14, 1913. The first regular convention was held in St. Paul, May 16-18, 1914. First officers were Reverend Jacob Tanner, president; John Wold, vice-president; Ben Borson, secretary; Manns Klugnes, treasurer. Annual meetings in the Northwest continued until the lag joined with Søndmørlaget and Nordmørlaget to form Møre og Romsdals Fylkes Lag.

Romsdalslaget published a yearbook, Aarbok, in two volumes, 1917 and 1920. These are reports and news volumes.

SELBULAGET. A preliminary meeting was called at Atwater, Minnesota, June 16-17, 1909, for the purpose of organizing a Selbulag. Temporary officers were John U. Pedersen, chairman; O. H. Uglem, secretary. At a meeting in Minneapolis June 16-17, 1910, a permanent organization was formed and a constitution adopted. Officers elected were A. O. Serum, president; Chris Swanson, vice-president; O. H. Uglem, secretary; T. H. Evjen, treasurer; J. U. Pedersen, corresponding secretary.

Annual meetings were held in the Northwest. The 1950 meeting was held in Minneapolis, June 19-20, and the 1951 meeting in Valley City, North Dakota, June 8-9. Programs included a banquet, speeches, music, films, and so forth, with occasional religious services. Gifts were sent to Selbu, Norway. [196]

Selbulaget has issued two yearbooks, Selbygbogen; meddelelser om selbyggernes slægt i Amerika og deres virke (Minneapolis, 1921, 1931), both edited by John U. Pedersen. The first volume contains an introductory article on the Norwegian home district, Selbu; a description of a trip to America; stories of early settlement from Olmsted and Dodge counties, Minnesota; biography and genealogy; articles on Wisconsin and Michigan settlements; articles on the following: Jackson and Cottonwood counties, Minnesota; Union County, South Dakota; Lac qui Parle County, Minnesota; Minnesota and northeastern South Dakota; the west coast and Idaho; North Dakota, Montana, Colorado, Canada, northern Minnesota, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Osseo, Minnesota; name changes among Selbu people; Selbu men in the First World War; Selbulaget; the constitution. The second volume consists mainly of biography and genealogy. There are articles on emigration from Selbu in 1866; Selbu settlements in Olmsted, Dodge, and Mower counties, Minnesota; Wisconsin and Michigan settlements; Jackson, Cottonwood, and Lac qui Parle counties, Minnesota; the west coast and Idaho; Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, North Dakota, Canada, northern Minnesota, Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Osseo, Minnesota, settlements; and miscellaneous items.

A minor publication is Navne og adresser af selbygger boende i de Forenede Stater og Canada, by T. H. Evjen (Hayfield, Minnesota, 1914) . This is a pamphlet of names and addresses.

SETESDALSLAGET (also written Sætesdalslaget). This lag was organized June 30, 1909, at Grand Forks, North Dakota. The first officers were Bjørgulv Bjørnaraa, president; Grunde Grundeson, secretary. Bjørgulv Bjørnaraa continued as president from 1909 to 19492. Grunde Grundeson continued as secretary for many years.

Annual meetings have been held in the Northwest. The 1950 meeting was held June 7-8, and the 1951 meeting June 15-16, both at Oklee, Minnesota. There have been occasional banquets. If meetings included Sundays, religious services were held. Programs have included speeches, readings, music, folk dances, films from Norway, and other entertainment. A memorial gift of $2,286 was sent to Setesdal in 1915. [197]

No publication has as yet been issued by this lag, but a history of the organization and of those from Setesdal in this country is being prepared by Miss Bergit Anderson of Minneapolis.

SIGDALSLAGET. This lag was organized June 24, 1911, at Fergus Falls, Minnesota. First officers were A. B. Pedersen, president; N. H. Lind and F. T. Grønvold, vice-presidents; G. T. Hagen, secretary; Ed. Modbraaten, treasurer.

Conventions have continued to the present time. The 1950 meeting was held at Grand Forks, North Dakota, and the 1951 meeting at Fergus Falls, Minnesota, June 8-10. Programs have included music, readings, plays, films of Norway, and usually banquets. On Sundays religious services are held.

Sigdalslaget has published six yearbooks, with the general title Sigdalslaget, 1914-49. Most of the material is edited by Mar tin T. Braatelien, president for a number of years. The first volume, 1914, contains a list of members; foreword; constitution; two short articles by the president, A. B. Pedersen; short biographies; recollections of the Indian uprising at Norway Lake, Minnesota, by A. B. Pedersen; and miscellaneous items. The second volume, 1920, contains biographies and portraits of immigrants from Sigdal; biographies and portraits of soldiers in the First World War; and a list of members. The third volume, 1929, contains a report of the 1928 meeting; biographies; notes on immigrants from Sigdal; a Sigdal church in North Dakota; list of members, and miscellany. The fourth volume, 1932, includes a report of the 1931 meeting at Decorah, Iowa; biographies; minor articles; sketches from Norway; a list of members in attendance at the 1931 meeting. The fifth and sixth volumes, 1941 and 1949, are built on the same plan, with short biographies and portraits, sketches, and so forth.

SMAALENSLAGET, see ØSTFOLDLAGET.

SNAASALAGET I AMERIKA. This lag was organized in Astoria, South Dakota, July 2, 1939. First officers were P. O. Bugge, president; Einar Hilsen, vice-president; Olga Hilsen, secretary; Gynthen Bugge, historian.

Annual meetings followed, with emphasis on the social objectives of the lag. Gifts were collected for hospitals and similar [198] charitable institutions in Snaasa, Norway. There is an article on "Snaasinger i Amerika" by John Skavlan in Trønderlagets aarbok, 42-55 (1934). A general statement about Snaasalaget is in Bygdelagenes Fællesraad, Aarbok, 75.

In the publication of Naumdøla Samband, Naumdøla, 305 --- 327 (1929), is a section entitled, "Snaasingen, offisielt organ for Snaasalaget i Amerika, redigeret av P. O. Bugge, sagaskriver, med bistand av Fru Olga Hilsen." This is the initial venture in what was intended to be a serial publication of the lag. However, no additional material has appeared. The section mentioned above contains an article entitled "Snaasa," by P. O. Bugge, and a number of short biographies, with some verse and other material.

SOGNALAGET I AMERIKA. Ingebrigt J. Hove, Ellend Erickson, John Brekke, John B. Thompson, Martinius Tofte, Jens Hove, and E. R. Hopperstad, all of whom traced their origin to Sogn, Norway, met in a preliminary meeting at Albert Lea, Minnesota, November 28, 1908, for the purpose of organizing Sognalaget; and a permanent organization, with the adoption of a constitution, took place at Albert Lea, December 30, 1908. Temporary officers, chosen at the November meeting, were John Brekke, chairman, and Erik R. Hopperstad, secretary. Permanent officers, elected at the December meeting, were John Brekke, president; Ellend Erickson, vice-president; Erik R. Hopperstad, secretary; Jens Hove, treasurer.

Annual meetings, with the exception of the years 1942-45, were held in the Northwest: Minnesota, Wisconsin, South Dakota, North Dakota, Iowa. The 1930 meeting was held in Stoughton, Wisconsin, June 9-10; and the 1951 meeting in Ben son, Minnesota, June 29-30. Programs have been varied, the Norwegian language being used. There have been banquets, speeches, music, plays, folk dances, Norwegian films, and other entertainment.

The purposes of this lag have been mentioned earlier in the present report. The society has been generous with gifts to Sogn, including aid to an old people's home, to the needy following a catastrophe in 1928, and to a historical society of Sogn. [199]

The society published Addressebog, samlet og udgivet af Sognalaget i Amerika, 1914-1915 (Chicago, 1915). This volume contains little more than a list of members, with their addresses.

Another enterprise was a serial publication, Sogningen, edited by L. C. Grundeland, of which only two volumes were issued, 1922 and 1923.

Vestkysten Sogna og Sunnfjordlag, which convened in Seattle, Washington, May 27, 1950, functions as a separate lag, as does Fresviklaget, a subdivision of Sognalaget. There are also other local Sogna lags.

SOLØRLAGET. According the information furnished, Solørlaget dates back to 1911, In 1920 the officers were C. M. Berg, president; B. L. Nelson, vice-president; Marius Hagen, secretary; Hans Erickson, treasurer. The eighth meeting was held in Fargo, North Dakota, June 20-22, 1919, and the ninth meeting in Duluth, Minnesota, June 23-25, 1920.

A serial publication was issued, which was edited by Marius Hagen: Soløringen, vols. 1-4 (Minneapolis, 1918-21). The first volume has a list of Solør soldiers in the First World War. The numbers of this publication are more or less uniform, with considerable news and sketches from Norway, American news, news of members, letters from members, notes about officers and others, lists of officers, a few genealogies, verse, and illustrations.

SOLUNG-LAGET I AMERIKA. This lag was organized September 7, 1910, in Minneapolis. A constitution was adopted the following year, June 20, 1911, at a meeting also held in Minneapolis. First officers in 1911 were Amund Østmo, president; H. B. Rude, vice-president; Hans Erickson, treasurer; C. M. Berg, secretary.

A pamphlet that contained a list of members and the constitution appeared in 1911: Navne-liste over Solunglagets medlemmer; grundloven som vedtaget i Minneapolis den 2Ode Juni 1911 (Chicago, 1911).

SØNDFJORDLAGET, see SUNNFJORDLAGET I AMERIKA.

SØNDHORDLANDSLAGET, see SUNNHORDLANDSLAGET.

SØNDMØRLAGET. No date has been found for the organization of Søndmørlaget, nor any list of those who organized the society. [200] Its first publication appeared in 1916. A third volume appeared in 1928, and indicated that the series would continue beyond that date. The lag merged with Romsdalslaget to form Møre og Romsdals Fylkes Lag, perhaps in the late 1920's or in the 1930's.

Three Aarbogs were published by the society in 1916, 1924, and 1928. The first contains a list of members but little information about the lag. Some biographical material accompanies miscellaneous material and lists of members.

STAVANGER AMT LAGET I AMERIKA. There was organized on September 10, 1910, at Story City, Iowa, the Stavanger og Søndre Bergenhus Amters Lag. The following year, the lag was divided into Stavangerlaget and Søndhordlandslaget (Sunnhordlandslaget). First officers were Reverend Carl J. Eastvold, president; Reverend O. Shefveland, vice-president; Berthel L. Bellesen, secretary; Joseph Marwick, treasurer. A constitution was adopted at the 1911 meeting, which also was held at Story City. Annual meetings followed, except that none were held in 1914 because of the lag's trip to Norway, or in 1918 because of the war. The name of the organization was changed from Stavangerlaget to Stavanger Amt Laget i Amerika in 1916. Two Lutheran ministers have functioned as president: Reverend Carl J. Eastvold, 1910-29, and Reverend J. E. H. Akre since that time.

Stavanger Amt Laget is distinguished for having a great number of sub-lags, representing the different subdistricts in the Stavanger region. In its publication a complete list of these is presented. Each sub-lag has its own reunion during the convention of the national lag and carries its own banner in the parade. There are local societies in such places as Minneapolis, Chicago, California, Washington State, and Canada. There is a related Rogalandslaget paa Vestkysten, the twenty-fifth meeting of which was held in Seattle, August 6-7, 1949.

The objectives of Stavanger Amt Laget are given as follows: "(1) By means of annual meetings to perpetuate acquaintance and friendship with relatives and friends from the homeland region; (2) to preserve good and useful recollections from the home of our forebears and likewise to maintain interest and [201] connections between the fatherland and our new home; (3) to work for the preservation of all that is noble and good, which, based on Christian fundamentals, has manifested itself in Norwegian life, and which will be of service and benefit for our new land and its people." The last of these, because of the leadership, has given tone to the meetings.

Stavanger Amt Laget i Amerika published Festskrift for Stavanger Amt Laget i Amerika, 1911-1936, a volume of 112 pages, on the occasion of its twenty-fifth anniversary, August 28-30, 1936. It was edited by Nils Klungtvedt, secretary. The book contains a historical account of the twenty-five years; photographs of officers, of meeting places, and of groups at various conventions; the constitution; a list of Lutheran ministers in the United States hailing from Stavanger Amt; and a list of the sub-lags and a general statement about them. A pamphlet of songs was published: Sange for Stavangerlagets stevne, Forest City, Iowa, August 28-29, 1912, samt lagets konstitution (Story City, Iowa, 1912).

The 1950 convention was held at Brookings, South Dakota, June 29-July 1, and the 1951 meeting was held at Roland, Iowa, June 29-July 1. Programs have been cultural, social, and religious.

SUNDALSLAGET. This lag is listed by A. A. Veblen in Valdris Book, pages 44-90, and the date and place of organization are given as June 24, 1911, Minneapolis. Other writers generally omit it. No other information has been found.

SUNNFJORDLAGET I AMERIKA. This lag was organized in 1912 as Søndfjordlaget i Amerika. The movement for its inception was started in 1911, and organization was completed in Minneapolis, July 18, 1912. Temporary officers were J. L. Redal, chairman; O. A. Opseth, secretary. Officers elected in 1912 were J. L. Redal, president; O. A. Opseth, vice-president; J. L. Nydahl, secretary-treasurer; and Olaf Redal, historian. The 1913 and 1914 meetings were also held in Minneapolis. Later meetings followed elsewhere in the Northwest. The 1950 meeting was held in Minneapolis, June 16-18, and the 1951 meeting in Ortonville, Minnesota, June 22-24. [202]

Programs have been social, cultural, and religious, with picnics and visiting prominent. Gifts have been sent to the Sunnfjord district in Norway; up to 1950 a total of $1,000 had been sent to hospitals and old people's homes.

A serial publication, Sunnfjordsoga; organ for Sunnfjordlaget i Amerika, edited by Olav Redal, was published in four parts, 1913-16. The second of these volumes is entitled Aarbog. The first contains a list of officers; an account of a gift to the home district; articles descriptive of Sunnfjord; genealogies; biographies; a story; and verse. The second volume contains a list of members; the constitution; the history of the lag; short biographical sketches; historical notes from St. James and Madelia, Minnesota; verse; and an account of a gift to Sunnfjord. The third volume contains a report of the third meeting; a report of a gift to Norway; articles on old settlers at Fertile, Minnesota, and in Nicollet County, Minnesota; biographical sketches; an article on the pioneer's Christmas; verse; and a list of members. Volume 4 contains reports on the lag's fourth meeting; articles on settlers at Pigeon Falls, Wisconsin, and elsewhere; and biographies.

A separate publication, edited by Nels Nydahl, Sunnfjordlaget i Amerika gjennem tredive aar, 1912-1942, appeared in 1942. This is a review of the lag's activities during the thirty years covered.

SUNNHORDLANDSLAGET. This lag was organized as Søndhordlandslaget on September 8, 1911, at Story City, Iowa, by the division of Stavanger og Søndre Bergenhus Amters Lag into Stavangerlaget and Søndhordlandslaget. The spelling of the name was changed with the change of spelling of the name of the home district in Norway. The first officers were L. O. Thorson, president; Oscar Ostrem, secretary; H. N. Donhow, treasurer. Others who helped form the new organization were T. S. Severtson, E. S. Eidesvik, and A. M. Henderson.

Annual meetings followed, most of them in Iowa. The 1950 meeting was held in Canton, South Dakota, August 25-27. Pro grams have included religious services, music, lectures, films of Norway, and other features. No publications have been issued.

TELELAGET. Telemark, Norway, is the home district of this [203] society, which was organized January 16, 1907, in Fargo, North Dakota. First officers were Reverend B. Bondal, president; A. A. Trovatten, vice-president; S. B. Salverson, secretary-treasurer; Torkel Oftelie, historian. Kjetil Knutson and Herman Fjelde were among other founders of the organization. Bondal died in 1909, and A. A. Trovatten succeeded him as president.

Meetings followed in the Northwest, most of them in Minnesota. There were no meetings during 1938-48. However, the society was revived at a meeting at St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minnesota, in 1949, under the leadership of N. N. Rønning. A 1950 meeting was held in June in Decorah, Iowa, and a 1951 meeting was held in Minneapolis. In recent conventions the language is turning to English. Programs have been largely secular, with speeches, music, films of Norway, and other features. There have been several sub-lags of this organization. A Red River Dalens Telelag met in Badger, Minnesota, June 14- 15, 1950. A Nordvestre Telelag met in Williston, North Dakota, June 6-7, 1950.

Telesoga, edited by Torkel Oftelie, appeared in fifty-three numbers, 1909-24. After an interval two more numbers appeared, series 2, nos. 1 and 2 (1938, 1950). In the early numbers there is much material from Norway; sketches; stories; verse; and a short section of biographies, with portraits. A special feature is a list of Tele soldiers in the First World War.

In 1926 appeared Aarbok for Telelaget, by Torkel Oftelie (Fergus Falls, Minnesota, 1926). This yearbook, besides reports, has a variety of interesting contents. There is an account of a trip through southern Minnesota in 1925; an article on settlers from Telemark at Silverton, Oregon; a letter of Olaf O. Vinje to Rasmus B. Anderson; settlers from Telemark in Allamakee County, Iowa; and a variety of other material.

TINNSJØLAGET. This lag is listed by A. A. Veblen in Valdris Book, pages 48-51, and the date of organization is given as June 22, 1911. The name is not found in recent lists of lags.

TOTENLAGET I AMERIKA. The name of this lag was Totninglaget when it was organized, but it was changed to Totenlaget later, the name of the home district in Norway being Toten. [204] There was a preliminary meeting in Minneapolis July 10, 1910, and organization was completed September 10, 1910. Officers were John H. Gordon, president; John C. Gran, vice-president; M. P. Thune, secretary; O. J. Berg, treasurer; Martin Brusven, historian. The next meeting was held in Minneapolis on September 9, 1911. At that time John C. Gran was elected president and held this office until 1926, after which M. Dysthe was president for many years. Annual meetings continued in the Northwest.

Programs have been of a social and cultural nature, with banquets, speeches, music, and other features. A number of gifts were sent to the home district of Toten, Norway. According to present information, the lag is no longer functioning.

Totenlaget issued four yearbooks, Totenlagets aarbog, 1912, 1916, 1921, and 1929, which contain considerable material relating to Norway. The 1916 volume has a description of a journey to America in 1872. There are lists of officers and of members of the organization. The 1929 volume has an article on the Totning settlement in Glenwood Township, Winneshiek County, Iowa, 1853; an article on the early settlers at Harmony, Minnesota; and a section of short biographical sketches.

TOTNINGLAGET, see TOTENLAGET.

TRØNDERLAGET I AMERIKA. This lag represents the land of the Trønders, the region around Trondheim, Norway. Men prominent in education, religion, publishing, and other endeavors helped establish this lag and have directed its affairs. The name has also been given as Det Nasjonale Trøndelag i Amerika; in its English form, the National Trønderlag of America. Organization was effected September 17, 1908, at Fergus Falls, Minnesota. Founders included Peder Langbach, D. G. Ristad, Johs. B. Wist, J. N. Kildahl, B. B. Haugan, Olaf Ray, Sivert Leirfallom, Thomas Wollan, and I. Dorrum. Officers elected at the 1908 meeting were

M. A. Wollan, president; Halfdan Bendecke, vice-president; Sivert Leirfallom, secretary. The constitution was adopted at the 1909 meeting in Glenwood, Minnesota.

Annual meetings followed, most of them in Minnesota. The 1950 meeting was held in Minneapolis, June 23-25. Banquets [205] have featured the annual conventions. There have been speeches, music, films from Norway, and other entertainment. Church services have been held on Sundays. A trip to Norway was undertaken in 1930. Numerous gifts were sent to the Trondheim region of Norway, including a gift of 30,000 kroner in 1930. The English language has come into use with this lag earlier than with most of the like organizations.

Trønderlaget has published Trønderlagets konstitution og bilove (n.p., n.d.), and twenty volumes of its yearbook, Trønderlagets aarbok, 1909-39, 1951. A great variety of material is found in these volumes. Prominent in all of them are reports of meetings, with financial and other statistics, lists of members, and so forth. Biography, genealogy, and immigration history gain prominence with the years. A biography of Reverend D. G. Ristad appears in the 1920 volume. The 1921 volume has an article on the Trønders in Norman County, Minnesota, and in Traill County, North Dakota, by O. P. Øjen. The 1923 volume has an article on a Trønder settlement in Todd County, Minnesota. The 1924 volume has accounts of settlements in Todd and Goodhue counties, Minnesota; an article on Trønders as new settlers; and one on a trip to America. The 1926 yearbook has an article on emigration to America from Overhalla, Norway, by D. G. Ristad, and one on pioneer days in Minnehaha County, South Dakota, by Iver I. Øyen. The 1928 yearbook contains an article on Trønder pioneers in Sioux Valley, South Dakota, by Iver I. Øyen, and one on the Høyem family in Norway and America. The 1929 volume contains a genealogy of the Balgaard family and also a purported genealogy of George Washington connecting him with an old Trønder family. The 1930-31 year book has articles on Ole Rynning and Svein Nilsson. The 1933 volume is a twenty-fifth anniversary edition and has an account of Trønderlaget during twenty-five years, by John Nornborg. There is also in this volume an account of the Gauldal colony at Hendricks, Minnesota. The 1934 volume has a supplement, "Snaasinger i Amerika," by John Skavian. The 1939 volume has considerable material from Norway, descriptive of various communities. There is another article on D. G. Ristad; an article on Trønder pioneers in Sioux City, Iowa, by Kristine Haugen; and [206] a description of a trip to Norway, by Elfrida Nervick. The 1951 volume follows the same general pattern.

The Trønder-American, edited by John Nornborg, was issued in four numbers (Duluth, Minnesota, 1935, 1937, 1938, 1939). This is a news pamphlet in English with reports of the doings of the lag.

TYSNESLAGET. This lag was organized at the State Fair Grounds in St. Paul, June 8, 1925, at the time of the Norse American Centennial. Officers elected were Andrew O. Dahlen, president; T. T. Thompson, treasurer; L. Lillehei, secretary and historian. Annual meetings have been held in the Northwest, in Minnesota, Iowa, and the Dakotas. Programs have included banquets, speeches, music, and other entertainment. There have been religious services on Sundays. A number of gifts have been sent to Tysnes, Norway.

The first publication of this society was a list of emigrants from Tysnes with short biographies: Navneliste, juni 1926 (Minneapolis, 1926). Only one number of a yearbook has been issued: Tysneslagets aarbok (Minneapolis, 1935); it was edited by Professor L. Lillehei. There is a list of officers; a description of Tysnes, with map; an article on Tysnes in ancient times; a history of Onarheim, an old Tysnes estate; travel reminiscences; a description of Tysnes Island; news from Tysnes; a list of ministers from Tysnes; history of Tysneslaget; recollections of a journey to America; Tysnes ministers, professors and teachers, lawyers, dentists, and doctors in America; and a number of miscellaneous items. The contents reveal that the interests of the organization were largely centered in Norway. The language and atmosphere are Norwegian.

VALDRIS SAMBAND. This was the first of the bygdelags to be organized in the United States. Since it illustrates the method of lag organization, its story is presented earlier in this report. Publications appeared rather early in its career, and distinguished men gave it impetus and guided its early progress. Professor Andrew A. Veblen was president from the beginning until 1920, and he was followed by A. M. Sundheim.

The 1950 meeting was held in Minneapolis on August 26, and [207] the 1951 meeting in Granite Falls, Minnesota, June 9-10. Many and varied have been its programs. Usually a banquet was a part of its festivities. On Sundays there were religious services. Besides the business sessions, there were speeches, music, readings, plays, folk dances, films of Norway, and other entertainment. A gift of 25,000 kroner was sent to Valdris in 1917, one of many substantial gifts.

The early publications connected with Valdris Samband are included here, although the first were privately published. The first was Tale ved Valdris-stevne i Como Park, St. Paul, den 8de september 1901, by A. A. Veblen (n.p., 1901). Presumably this was published by the author. The second publication, following permanent organization in 1902, was Grundlov aat Valdris Sambande (1902), which was the constitution. A third publication was Valdris Samband: Beretninger og rapporter fra det sidste stevne, holdt i Como Park, St. Paul, Aug. 31, 1902, og prof. John Dahles tale (St. Paul, 1902). It contains reports of the 1902 meeting and the address that John Dahle gave on that occasion. Another publication of the same year was Valdris Samband (Iowa City, Iowa, 1902). This leaflet is signed by A. A. Veblen, who was also the publisher.

Valdris helsing (Valdris Greeting), the first of the serial publications, was edited by Veblen and was issued in thirty numbers, 1903-10. It contains announcements, reports of meetings, editorials, addresses given at meetings, information from Valdris, book reviews, pioneer history, a story of the Valdris settlement in Goodhue County, Minnesota, letters, biographies, stories, and sketches. It was followed by Samband, et maanedskrift, a monthly publication issued as numbers 31-114 (Minneapolis, November, 1910-October, 1917). This too was edited by Veblen.

Veblen also published The Valdris Book, a Manual of the Valdris Samband (Minneapolis, 1920). The book has the following chapters: Valdris; the bygdelag movement; the Valdris Sam band; the members of the Valdris Samband; Valdris men who entered the country's services in the World War; some documents, selections written by Valdris men in America. A folded map of Norway and Valdris is included. The language is English.

There followed Samband, Published by the Valdris Samband, [208] vols. 1 to 11, no. 2, 1925-35, published in Minneapolis and edited by A. M. Sundheim. The contents are of the same nature as those of the earlier series. A. M. Sundheim was also responsible for the last publication, Valdresser i Amerika: Aarbok 1922 (Minneapolis, 1922). There is a foreword by the editor. The following articles make up the contents: the story of emigration from Valdris to America; how many Valdriser are there in America; pioneer dwellings; Valdris Samband's history, by A. A. Veblen; report of the meeting of 1921; A. A. Veblen, by Juul Dieserud; John Dahle, by J. J. Skørdalsvold; O. L. Kirkeberg, by A. M. Sundheim; Helge Haugerud, by N. J. Lockrem; Christopher J. Heen, by A. A. Veblen; Harald Thorson, by Nils Flaten; Nils Brandt, by J. C. M. Hanson; some Valdris sketches; and other items.

VESTFOLDLAGET. Six men whose origin was Vestfold, Norway, met in the home of O. P. B. Jacobson in Minneapolis, December 27, 1925, to organize a lag of men and women from their district. Temporary officers were O. P. B. Jacobson, chairman; C. S. B. Hoel, vice-chairman; Thomas Sorby, treasurer; M. A. Kalleberg, secretary. A business meeting was held in Minneapolis May 20, 1926, at which these officers were made permanent. Carl A. Bredal was added as historian. The membership was reported as 40.

The first general convention was held in Minneapolis July 2-3, 1926. Later meetings have also been held in Minneapolis. The meetings are largely social, with a banquet, speeches, music, films, and so forth. Many gifts have been sent to Vestfold, Norway. The 1926 membership was 60, and the 1928 membership, 180. The society is confined mainly to the Twin Cities.

One publication has been issued, Aarbok nr. 1, laget for vest foldinger i Amerika, 1929 (Minneapolis, 1929), edited by M. A. Kalleberg. There is a list of officers; an editorial; an article on the organization of Vestfoldlaget; an article addressed to country men from Vestfold by H. M. Hoim; an article on Vestfold in olden times, by H. M. Holm; a pioneer story by E. J. Sundby; an article on the local Vestfold lag in the Twin Cities; a number of biographical sketches; a list of members; and several miscellaneous items. [209]

VIKNALAGET. In the summer of 1913 John W. Johnson of Baldwin, Wisconsin, wrote an article in Decorah-posten, appealing to immigrants from Vikna, Norway, to send a memorial gift to the old country, since May 17 of that year would be the centennial of the Norwegian constitution. A total of 2,834 kroner was collected at that time, but additions continued for a number of years. Out of this co-operation, a bygdelag came into being. The first meeting for organization purposes was held in Minneapolis February 8, 1924, at which 25 were present. A business meeting was held in Minneapolis March 7, 1924, at which a constitution was adopted. Officers elected were H. H. Ockwig, president; Adolf Larsen, vice-president; Casper Cornelius, secretary; John Caspersen, treasurer. Other founders were John M. Johnson, Alfred Berg, Jørgen Berg, Paul Woxeng, Arnold Jakobsen, Paul Sørø, and Edvard Hustad.

It was decided to hold meetings in Minneapolis the first Friday of each month, thus making the organization essentially a Minneapolis concern. There is generally a Christmas party and banquet and a summer picnic. Speeches, music, films, and so forth have featured the programs. The field of interest of the society was to be the immigrants from Vikna, Norway, their welfare in this country, the preservation of the Norwegian heritage through music, song, literature, art, and folklore, co-operation with the land of the fathers, and the growth and promotion of the bygdelag movement.

Three publications have been issued by Viknalaget. The first was Viknaværingens aarbok for 1927-1928 (Minneapolis, 1928). It has a foreword by John Rørvik and miscellaneous contents, including recollections of fishing enterprises, reminiscences of Christmas, items from Norway, and minor sketches. A second publication was Address Book of Viknaværinger in America (Minneapolis, 1929).

The third is Viknaværinger i Amerika, historiske og biografiske skildringer, by John Rørvik and Paul Woxeng (Minneapolis, 1933). There is a foreword by John Rørvik; emigrants from our district, by John Rørvik; the saga of Viknalaget; list of donors of the gift to the home district; nature, history, and community life at Vikna, by Paul Woxeng; the saga of emigration; [210] emigration to America, by John Rørvik; Norwegians in America; activities of the bygdelags; and miscellaneous sketches, verse, and greetings.

VINGER, EIDSKOG, OG ODALEN BYGDELAG. This lag was organized March 20, 1926, in Minneapolis. The first convention was held the same year in July in Willmar, Minnesota. First officers were Louis Øverbye, president; C. O. Aanerud, vice-president; Mrs. Olive Walby, secretary; Jonas Anderson, treasurer; A. Modbraaten, historian. Other founders were Otto Olson, O. C. Aanerud, Hans Arnesen, O. C. Anderson, I. M. Ingebretson, Henry Holt, Mrs. E. Erickson, Thos. Runerud, Carl Howe, John Howe, Mathilde Brodal, Mrs. Erick Lageberg, and Harold Granerud.

Annual meetings have been held in the Northwest. The 1950 meeting was held at Granite Falls, Minnesota, June 16-17. Programs have been social and cultural, and the Norwegian language has been used. No publications have been issued by this organization. Its stated purposes are quoted in the introduction to the present compilation.

VOSSELAGET. This lag, representing Voss, Norway, was organized and a constitution adopted on June 24, 1909, at Albert Lea, Minnesota. First officers were Knut Henderson, president; Ole O. Skutle, vice-president; T. L. Ringheim, secretary; Oscar Horveid, treasurer. Other founders were L. L. Torgerson, Ole O. Lund, and K. N. Knutson. Knut A. Rene was prominent in the society's early history.

Meetings have been held in the Northwest, in Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, and South Dakota, annually except for the war years. The 1950 meeting was held in Decorah, Iowa, June 23-24, and the 1951 meeting in Albert Lea, Minnesota, June 22-23. Programs have been social and cultural, featuring speeches, music, Norwegian films, and folk dances, with banquets concluding the festivities. Prominent men have addressed the conventions.

Vossingen was first published in December, 1920, and has since then been published continuously to 1950, the dates of issue being 1920-29, 1936-38, 1946, 1950. Numbering began with volume 3, number 1, as a continuation of the numbering of [211] Wossingen (Leland, Illinois, and Milwaukee, 1857-60). Wossingen was published by a society that had been organized for the purpose of helping immigrants from Voss, and consequently it differed from a lag publication. The last issue of Vossingen, 1950, carries no number, but it is presumed to be the thirty-fifth number. The early issues contain material relating to Voss, Norway, and views and short articles about the homeland. Later numbers devote more space to the American scene and to immigrants on this side of the ocean. Number 19-20 (June, 1925) contains copies of old letters, an account of the first Voss society, and biography and genealogy.

A separate publication is Knut A. Rene's Historie om udvan dringen fra Voss og vossingerne i Amerika, med beskrivelse og historie af Voss, karter og billeder (Madison, Wisconsin, 1930). The volume contains a history of emigration from Voss, Nor way; stories of some of these immigrants in the United States; and a description and history of Voss, with maps and illustrations. The publication was an ambitious project, and the book has had wide distribution in this country and in Norway.

A FAMILY LAG. Aakerlaget is mentioned by L. M. Gimmestad as one of forty-seven lags functioning in 1929 (Skandinaven almanak og kalender, 1929, p. 97-103). No date of organization is given, nor other historical information. However, Aakerlaget was a family group representing the Aaker family, and consequently should not be included with the national bygdelags. Its meetings would be in the nature of family reunions.

There may be other lags and sub-lags not given in this compilation; however, most of them would be local lags or subdivisions of the national organizations. Publications of a minor character may have been issued, but copies have not come to the attention of the compiler.

[212]

LIST OF NATIONAL BYGDELAGS, WITH DATES OF ORGANIZATION
[For the convenience of readers the Norwegian character ø has been alphabeted as o.]

Bygdelagenes Fællesraad, Inc. (joint council of the bygdelags): January 25, 1916.

1. Agderlaget: June 6, 1925.
2. Bergenslaget: May 17, 1907.
3. Fitjarlaget: June 28, 1928.
4. Flekkefjordlaget: March 7, 1926.
5. Gudbrandsdalslaget: September 12, 1909.
6. Hadelandslaget: September 7, 1910.
7. Hallinglaget i Amerika: March 9, 1907.
8. Hardangerlaget: September 28, 1911.
9. Hedalslaget: no date available.
10. Hjørundfjordlaget: no date available.
11. Hurdalslaget: October 20, 1913.
12. Kongsberglaget (later combined with Numedalslaget i Amerika to form Numedal, Kongsberg, og Omegn Lag): June 24-25, 1921.
13. Kristianialaget (later Oslolaget): August 13, 1913.
14. Landingslaget: June 16, 1910.
15. Leksviklaget: July 6, 1941.
16. Mjøsenlaget i Amerika: June 7, 1911.
17. Modum-Eiker Laget: June 6, 1925.
18. Møre og Romsdals Fylkes Lag (union of Romsdalslaget, Søndmørlaget, and Nordmørlaget).
19. Namdalslaget i Amerika (formerly called Naumdøla Samband): September 8, 1926.
20. Nordfjordlaget: June 11, 1910.
21. Nordhordlandslaget i Amerika: September 3, 1913.
22. Nordlandslaget av Amerika: January 20, 1909.
23. Nordmørlaget (later absorbed by Møre og Romsdals Fylkes Lag): June, 1925. [213]
24. Numedal, Kongsberg, og Omegn Lag (a consolidation of Numedalslaget i Amerika and Kongsberglaget): June 15, 1928.
25. Numedalslaget i Amerika (later combined with Kongsberglaget to form Numedal, Kongsberg, og Omegn Lag): June 17, 1908.
26. Opdalslaget i Amerika: August 1, 1920.
27. Oslolaget (formerly called Kristianialaget): August 13, 1913.
28. Østerdalslaget: June 18, 1910.
29. Østfoldlaget (formerly called Smaalenslaget): June 4, 1915.
30. Ringerikslaget: June 7, 1916.
31. Romsdalslaget (later absorbed by Møre og Romsdals Fylkes Lag): June 14, 1913.
32. Selbulaget: June 16, 1910.
33. Setesdalslaget (also spelled Sætesdalslaget): June 30, 1909.
34. Sigdalslaget: June 24, 1911.
35. Smaalenslaget (later called Østfoldlaget): June 4, 1915.
36. Snaasalaget i Amerika: July 2, 1929.
37. Sognalaget i Amerika: November 28, 1908.
38. Solørlaget: 1911[?].
39. Solunglaget i Amerika: September 7, 1910.
40. Søndmørlaget (later absorbed by Møre og Romsdals Fylkes Lag): no date available.
41. Stavanger Amt Laget i Amerika (formerly part of Stavanger og Søndre Bergenhus Amters Lag): September 8, 1911.
42. Stavanger og Søndre Bergenhus Amters Lag (later divided to form Stavanger Amt Laget i Amerika and Sondhordlandslaget): September 10, 1910.
43. Sundalslaget: June 24, 1911.
44. Sunnfjordlaget i Amerika (formerly called Søndfjordlaget): July 18, 1912.
45. Sunnhordiandsiaget i Amerika (formerly part of Stavanger og Søndre Bergenhus Amters Lag, and first spelled Søndhordlandslaget): September 8, 1911. [214]
46. Telelaget: January 16, 1907.
47. Tinnsjølaget: June 22, 1911.
48. Totenlaget i Amerika (also spelled Totninglaget): September 10, 1910.
49. Trønderlaget i Amerika: September 17, 1908.
50. Tysneslaget: June 8, 1925.
51. Valdris Samband: August 31, 1902.
52. Vestfoldlaget: May 20, 1926.
53. Viknalaget: March 7, 1924.
54. Vinger, Eidskog, og Odalen Bygdelag: March 20, 1926.
55. Vosselaget: June 24, 1909.

[215]
NORWEGIAN-AMERICAN BYGDELAGS PUBLICATIONS OF THE BYGDELAGS

BYGDELAGENES FÆLLESRAAD, Inc.
Aarbok og julehilsen (Minneapolis, 1929).
Konstitution (n.p., n.d.).

GUDBRANDSDALSLAGET
Aarbok, nos. 1-23 (St. Paul, etc., 1911-38, 1941, 1949). No. 20, 1933-34, has the title,

Gudbrandsdalsla gets 25 aars jubilæumsskrift, 1909-1934.
Gudbrandsdølen, organ for gudbrandsdølerne i Amerika, vols. 1-4 (Eau Claire, Wisconsin,
1927[?]-1931).
Gudbrandsdølernes julehilsen, vols. 1-4 (Eau Claire, Wisconsin, 1923-26).

HADELANDSLAGET
Brua, nos. 1-35 (Hudson, Wisconsin, etc., 1921-51).
Hadelandslaget, vols. 1-3 (Sacred Heart, Minnesota, 1911, 1917, 1921).
Oplysninger om medlemmer af Hadelandsla get (Sacred Heart, Minnesota, n.d.).

HALLINGLAGET I AMERIKA
Hallingen, et skrift for hallinger i Amerika og andetsteds (Fargo, North Dakota, 1912).
Hallingen (Fargo, North Dakota, Minneapolis, etc., 1912- present).
Halling-minne, udgivet for Hallinglaget i Amerika, nos. 1-12 (Walcott, North Dakota, etc., 1908-
12).

HARDANGEBLAGET
Hardangerlaget, dets grundlov og Charter Members (Decorah, Iowa, 1912).
Hardangerlaget 1911-1925 (Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 1925).

HURDALSLAGET
Hurdalslagets aarbog: Rapport om stevnet ved Cashton, Wis., 19-21 sept., 1914 (Cashton,
Wisconsin, 1915).

KONGSBERGLAGET
Aarbog, vols. 1-6 (Albert Lea, Minnesota, Decorah, Iowa, 1924-1930). [216]

KEISTIANIALAGET, see OSLOLAGET

LANDINGSLAGET
Landings-bogen, 1924 (Decorah, Iowa, 1924).

MJØSENLAGET
Mjøsenlagets aarbok, vols. 1-10 (Red Wing, Minnesota, Decorah, Iowa, 1915-22, 1927-30).

MODUM-EIKER LAGET
Aarbog for Modum-Eiker Laget, vols. 1-4 (Duluth, Minnesota, etc., 1933, 1937, 1938/40, 1950).

NAMDALSLAGET I AMERIKA
Einar Hilsen, Naumdøla nummer ein, 1929, offisielt organ for Naumdøla Samband, det nasjonale
Namdalslag i Amerika (Astoria, South Dakota, 1929).

NAUMDØLA SAMBAND, see NAMDALSLAGET I AMERIKA

NERSTRANDSLAGET
En kort oversigt over lagets virke, samt bio grafter med billeder over yore gutter, der deltog i
verdenskrigen, og bio grafter med billeder over lagets medlemmer (Decorah, Iowa, 1920).

NORDFJORDLAGET
Nordfjordlagets aarbok, vols. 1-25 (Minneapolis, etc., 1918-50).
Lars M. Gimmestad, Nordfjordingernes historie i Amerika (Minneapolis, 1940).

NORDHORDLANDSLAGET I AMERIKA
Aarbog, vols. 1-3 (Minneapolis, 1915, 1925, 1932). Festskrift for Nordhordlandslaget i Amerika,
1913-1938 (St James, Minnesota, 1938).

NORDLANDSLAGET AV AMERIKA
Nord-Norge (Minneapolis, etc., 1912-present).
The first two numbers, 1912, 1913, carried the title, Nordlandsla get. The December 1950 issue
was number 138.

NUMEDAL, KONGSBERG OG OMEGN LAG
Aarbok, vols. 1-21 (Decorah, Iowa, etc., 1929-1951).

NUMEDALSLAGET I AMERIKA
Aarbog, vols. 1-14 (Minneapolis, Minnesota, Decorah, Iowa, 19 15-28).
Addressebog over Numedalsla gets medlemmer og lagets grund lov og bestyrelse, 1912-1913
(Decorah, Iowa, 1913). [217]
Numedalslagets festskrift, 1908-1933 (Minneapolis, 1933). Reisebreve skrevne underveis til
Jerusalem, af forhenværende sogneprest til Nore, Numedal, Carl Christian Olsen, ved overlærer Emil Olsen, Oslo (Decorah, Iowa, 1925).

OPDALSLAGET
Opdalslagets aarbok, vols. 1-13 (Everett, Washington, etc., 1921-41).

OSLOLAGET
Vikværingen, organ for Kristianialaget, vols. 1-7 (Minneapolis, 1915-22).

ØSTERDALSLAGET
Aarbok, vols. 1-6 (Minneapolis and Decorah, Iowa, 1913, 1914, 1917, 1920, 1923, 1925/26).
The first four have the title Østerdalslagets mindeskrift, the last two are entitled Østerdalslagets aarbok.
K. G. Nilsen, Østerdølenes saga (Duluth, Minnesota, 1938).

OSTFOLDLAGET
Aarbok for Smaalenslaget i Amerika, vols. 1-4 (Kasson and St. Paul, Minnesota, 1919, 1922, 1927,
1930).
Regler for Smaalenslaget og medlemsliste (n.p., 1917).

RINGERIKSLAGET
O. S. Johnson, Utvandringshistorie fra Ringeriksbygderne (Minneapolis and Decorah, Iowa, 1919,
1921, 1925, 1930).

ROMSDALSLAGET
Aarbok, vols. 1-2 (Minneapolis, 1917, 1920).

SELBULAGET
T. H. Evjen, Navne og adresser af sel bygger boende i de Forenede Stater og Canada (Hayfield,
Minnesota, 1914).
John U. Pedersen, Selbygbogen, meddelelser om selbyggernes slægt i Amerika og deres virke
(Minneapolis, 1921, 1931).

SIGDALSLAGET
Sigdalslaget, vols. 1-6 (Minneapolis and Decorah, Iowa, 1914, 1920, 1929, 1932, 1941, 1949).

SMAALENSLAGET, see ØSTFOLDLAGET

SNAASALAGET I AMERIKA
"Snaasingen, offisielt organ for Snaasalaget i Amerika," in Naumdøla, 1929, p. 305-327. [218]

SOGNALAGET
Addressebog, samlet og udgivet af Sognalaget i Amerika, 1914- 1915 (Chicago, 1915).
Sogningen, vols. 1 and 2 (1922-23). Edited by Lasse G. Grundeland.

SOLØRLAGET
Soløringen, vols. 1-4 (Minneapolis, 1918-21).

SOLUNG-LAGET I AMERIKA
Navne-liste over Solung-lagets medlemmer; grundloven som vedtaget i Minneapolis den 2Ode juni
1911 (Chicago, 1911).

SØNDMOELAGET
Aarbog, vols. 1-3 (Minneapolis, 1916, 1924, 1928).

STAVANGER AMT LAGET I AMERIKA
Festskrift for Stavanger Amt Laget i Amerika, 1911-1936 (n.p., 1936).
Sange for Stavangerlagets stevne, Forest City, Iowa, August 28-29, 1912, samt lagets konstitution
(Story City, Iowa, 1912).

SUNNFJORDLAGET I AMERIKA
Sunnfjordlaget i Amerika gjennem tre dive aar, 1912-1942 (Milwaukee, 1942).
Sunnfjordsoga, organ for Sunnfjordlaget i Amerika, nos. 1-4 (Minneapolis, etc., 1913-16).
Title varies.

TELELAGET
Torkel Oftelie, Aarbok for Telelaget (Fergus Falls, Minnesota, 1926).
Telesoga, series 1, nos. 1-53; series 2, nos. 1 and 92 (Fergus Falls, Minneapolis, etc., 1909-24,
1938, 1950).

TOTENLAGET
Totenlagets aarbog, vols. 1-4 (Red Wing, Minnesota, 1912, 1916, 1921, 1929).

TRØNDERLAGET I AMERIKA
Trønder-American, nos. 1-4 (Duluth, Minnesota, 1935, 1937, 1938, 1939).
Trønderlagets aarbok, vols. 1-20 (Minneapolis, etc., 1909-39, 1951).
Trønderlagets konstitution og bilove (n.p., n.d.). [219]

TYSNESLAGET
Navneliste, juni 1926 (Minneapolis, 1926).
Tysneslagets aarbok 1935 (Minneapolis, 1935).

VALDRIS SAMBAND
Grundlov aat Valdris Sambande (n.p., 19092).
Samband, et maanedskrift, nos. 31-1 14 (Minneapolis, 1910-17).
Samband, Published by the Valdris Samband, vols. 1-1l (Minneapolis, 1925-35).
Valdresser i Amerika: Aarbok 1922 (Minneapolis, 1922).
Valdris helsing, nos. 1-30 (Minneapolis, 1903-10).
Vaidris Samband: Beretninger og rapporter fra det sidste stevne, holdt i Como Park, St. Paul, Aug.
31, 1902, og Prof. John Dahles tale (St. Paul, 1902).
Veblen, Andrew A. Tale ved Valdris-stevne i Como Park, St. Paul, den 8de September 1901 (n.p.,
1901).
Veblen, Andrew A. The Valdris Book, a Manual of the Valdris Samband (Minneapolis, 1920).

VESTFOLDLAGET
Aarbok nr. 1, laget for vestfoldinger i Amerika, 1929 (Minneapolis, 1929).

VIKNALAGET
Address Book of Viknaværinger in Amerika (Minneapolis, 1929).
Viknaværingens aarbok for 1927-1928 (Minneapolis, 1928).
John Rorvik and Paul Woxeng, Viknaværinger i Amerika, historiske og biografiske skildringer
(Minneapolis, 1933).

VOSSELAGET
Vossingen, nos. 1-35 (Madison, Wisconsin, 1920-50). Knut A. Rene, Historie om udvandringen
fra Voss og Voss ingerne i Amerika, med beskrivelse og historie af Voss, karter og billeder
(Decorah, Iowa, 1930).

[220]
SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aaland, Jacob, Fitjar, bygdaskipnad og bygdesoga (Sandane, Norway, 1933).
Anderson, Rasmus B., Bygdejævning: Artikler af representanter fra de forskjellige bygder i Norge om, hvad deres sambygd ninger har udrettet i vesterheimen (Madison, Wisconsin, 1903).
Bergsagel, K., "Bygdelagsbevægelsen i Canada," Nordmands forbundet, 23: 184 (June, 1930).
Bruce, Gustav M., "Bygdelagene," Nordmanns-forbundet, 32:7- 10 (January, 1939).
Gimmestad, Lars M., "Bygdelagene i 30 år," Nordmanns-forbundet, 25:260-262 (August, 1932).
----------"Bygdelagenes kulturbetydning," Skandinaven almanak og kalender, 80-91 (1981).
----------"Bygdelagsbevægelsen," Skandinaven almanak og kalender, 97-103 (1929).
----------"Bygdelagsbevægelsen i de Forenede Stater," Nordmands forbundet, 23:181-184 (June, 1930).
Grimley, O. B., "Bygdelagene i America," Nordmanns-forbundet, 34: 74-77 (April, 1941).
Herbransen, Sverre Herbert, De første utvandrere fra Numedal til Amerika (Christiania, Norway, 1924).
Hjellum, John, "Bygdelagene i 1929," Skandinaven almanak og kalender, 69-79 (1930).
Høverstad, Helge, "Bygdelagenes indflydelse paa vort land og vort folks kultur," Samband, 1:384-391 (September, 1928).
----------"De norsk-amerikanske bygdelags indflydelse paa vort land og paa vort folks kultur," Skandinaven almanak og kalen der, 70-75 (1929).
Johnson, John S., "Av Vaidris Sambands historie," Valdris Helsing, 2:37-41 (March, 1904); Samband, no. 49, p. 230-240 (May, 1912).
Knutsen, Alfred, Utvandrere fra Rogaland (Haugesund, Norway, 1942). [221]
Moen, Johannes Knudson, Saude og nesherringer i Amerika: Et lidet historisk og biografisk bidrag til vore bygdefolks historie (Minneapolis, n.d.).
Nerby, Ole, Til hedøler i Amerika (Decorah, Iowa, 1921). Rønning, Nils N., "Oplysninger om bygdelagene," Syttende Mai festskrift, hundreaars-festen, Saint Paul-Minneapolis 1914, 97-1927 (Minneapolis, 1914).
Skandinaven (Chicago), June 5, 1925. Special issue, Norse-American Centennial, "Norsk-amerikanernes hundreaars fest, 1825- 1925."
Skavlan, John, "Snaasinger i Amerika," Trønderlagets aarbok, 42-55 (1934).
Strøm, Herbjørn H., Ældre og yngre slegter fra Tunhovdbygden, Numedal, Norge, i det sidste hundrede aar, tildels i Norge og tildels i Amerika (Hillsboro, North Dakota, 1916).
Veblen, Andrew A., "The Bygdelag Movement," in Valdris Book, 44-90 (Minneapolis, 1920).
----------"Bygdelag Origin," an unpublished manuscript in the possession of the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.
----------"Erindringer," Samband, 2:33-37 (June, 1927).
----------"Fra bygdelagsbevægelsens begyndelse," in Bygdelagenes Fællesraad, Aarbok og julehilsen, 32-36 (1929).
----------"Fra bygdelagsbevægelsens begyndelse," Samband, 2:39- 44 (June, 1929).
----------"Fra Valdris Sambands historie," Vaidresser i Amerika, aarbok 1922, 46-58 (Minneapolis, 1922).
----------"De norsk-amerikanske bygdelag," in John S. Johnson, Minnesota, en kortfattet historie av nordmændenes bebyggelse av staten, 133-139 (St. Paul [1914]).
----------"De norsk-amerikanske bygdelag," Skandinaven almanak og kalender, 45-61 (1926).
----------"De norsk-amerikanske bygdelag," Syttende Mai festskrift, 73-78.
----------"The Valdris Samband," in Valdris Book, 91-135.
----------"Valdris Samband," Valdres 900-årsskrift 1923, 416-426 (Gjorvik, Norway, 1923).
Wossingen, vols. 1 and 2 (Leland, Illinois, and Milwaukee, 1857-60).

[222]
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Most of the publications of the Norwegian-American bygdelags, and information concerning them, are to be found in the Minnesota Historical Society, Saint Paul; the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison; Luther College, Decorah, Iowa; and in the collection of the Norwegian-American Historical Association at Northfield, Minnesota. Some of the publications are found in other libraries. No collection is complete. It may be that some of the publications of these societies have not come to the attention of the author.

Thanks are due to those institutions named above for the assistance received, and especially to the Minnesota Historical Society. The collection of the material covered many years; and the institutions are commended for preserving and cataloguing it, in order that this phase of the history of Norwegian-American immigration and settlement may receive the attention and evaluation that it deserves. Thanks are due to all those who furnished information by correspondence and telephone. The author extends his thanks to the Norwegian-American Historical Association and its editorial board for making the publication of this compilation possible.
J. H.

 

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